Glossary of terms used in flight

WE give an illustrated Glossary of Terms used in flight, and some notes on the Building of a Flyer, which are here reproduced by kind permission of the proprietors of flight.
Aeroplane—Any motor-driven flying machine which relies upon surfaces for E its support in the air (Fig. 20).

Monoplane.—An aeroplane with one main pair of outstretched wings.

Biplane—An aeroplane with two main planes superposed , i.e. double decked (Fig. 21).

Triplane—An aeroplane with three monoplanes superposed
Double Monoplane.—An aeroplane with two pairs of outstretched
wings, one pair behind the other (Fig. 22).

Triple monoplane—An aeroplane with three pairs of outstretched wings arranged one behind the other.

Stepped monoplane.—An aeroplane in which two or more pairs of wings are mounted fairly closely behind one another, but at noticeably different levels, like a row of steps (Fig. 23).

Glider.—A flying machine without a motor.

Helicopter.—A flying machine in which propellers are utilized to give a lifting effect by their own direct action on the air. . . . In aviation the term implies that the screw exerts a direct lift (Fig. 24).

Orthopter.—A flapping wing machine which obtains a direct lifting effect by beating the air with flat or straight wings.

Ornithopter.—A flapping wing machine which has arched wings like those of a bird.

Wings.—The pair of main outstretched surfaces on a monoplane. This term is usually confined to monoplanes as being more descriptive of the type (Fig. 25).

Plane—Any surface.

Tail.—The plane or group of small planes at the rear end of the machine, utilized more for the purpose of conferring automatic stability than for giving support (Fig. 26).

Crosstail—(Fig. 27.) A tail formed by intersecting vertical and horizontal planes.

Rudder.—(Fig. 28.) The plane or planes which steer the machine sideways.

Elevator.—The plane or planes which, by being tilted or dipped, make the machine rise or fall (Fig. 29). (The adjectives ‘ double,’ ‘triple,’ ‘ biplane,’ etc., applied to rudders and elevators, signify that two or three similar planes are placed parallel to one another to form a complete unit.)

Righting tips—Little pivoted wings usually forming extensions of the main wings or planes, for the purpose of assisting in the maintenance of equilibrium, and also for steering, with or without the assistance of the rudder. When one tip clips the other tilts (Fig. 30).

Warping means the springing of a plane out_of its normal shape. It is understood to imply that the rear edges near the planes or extremities of wings are tilted or dipped, respectively, to create a temporary difference in their inclinations. This enables the wind to heel the machine b ck again into balance (Figs. 31, 32).

Frame—In French, the term ‘chassis’ is sometimes used, but more often the word ‘ fuselage,’ on account of the bodies of most monoplanes being spindle-shaped (fusiform) (Fig 33)

Half-Elliptic Frame—A frame of fusiform type which has been curtailed in the middle.

Keel—A vertical plane or planes arranged longitudinally either above or below the body for the purpose of giving stability. At present these are only to be observed in monoplanes.

Curtains.——Vertical planes between horizontal planes, thus forming the structure into a kind of box-kite. These are often employed near the extremities of a biplane.

Box-kite.—~Expression denoting a structure consisting of two horizontal planes joined by two side curtains
(Fig. 34)

Multicellular.—A structure virtually consisting of a row, or rows, of box-kites (Fig. 35).

Propeller.—For the sake of distinction we prefer to reserve this term for screws which push the aeroplane, thus leaving the term.

Screw.—For a device which pulls the machine (tractor screw) or exerts a lifting effect (lifting screw). Aerodrome.—A field or place set apart for the practice of flight.

Arched—(Fig. 36.) This term denotes that the long edge of a plane or wing which is at right angles to the direction of the machine’s motion is curved, so that the extremities of the plane or the tips of the wings sweep downwards.

Cambered.-—This term denotes that the plane or wing has a curved transverse section. In practice every flexible aeroplane surface becomes more or less cambered under the air pressure, but many are made so initially (Fig. 37).

Inclination.——(Fig. 38.) The inclination of a plane is its angle to the horizontal. When a plane is very wide in proportion to its spread, its inclination sometimes differs from point to point which gives it a cambered appearance.

Spread, Span.—Synonymous terms denoting the linear
dimension of the front edge of a main supporting plane or pair of wings, Le. the distance from tip to tip, measured transversely to the direction of flight.

Width.—The width of a plane is the distance from the front edge to the rear edge, measured in the line of flight.

Length.-This term is applied to the machine as a whole and not to the planes. It is a dimension measured from the nose to the tail.

Gap—The distance between two superposed planes measured vertically.

Dihedral—Term denoting that the planes or wings are arranged V fashion. The early Santos Dumont machines were dihedral biplanes (Fig. 39).

Semiradial engines—(Fig. 40.) Engines which are of the radial type, but have all their cylinders arranged within a half circle.

Tilt and Dip—Tilt implies that an edge has been moved upwards from its initial position; dip implies the contrary.”

Fig. 41 represents no actual machine in particular, though it includes the characteristic features of the more important flyers, and the names of the various parts are mentioned thereon. With regard to the main deck ‘ span ’ signifies the longitudinal dimensions, while the term ‘ chord’ is used for the transverse dimensions. The decks are cambered (Fig. 42). It is the chord between the leading and trailing edges which is measured when giving the fore and aft: dimension. The ‘camber’ itself is the term applying to the maximum versine of the arc subtended by the chord, and its position is commonly well in front of the semichord ; decks being no longer cambered in the form of an

arc of a circle. The tangent to the leading edge of the deck makes with the chord the ‘angle of entry,’ while the tangent to the trailing edge of the deck similarly makes with the chord the ‘angle of incidence,’ and defines the attitude of the plane, while the numerical value given by the ratio of the span to the chord similarly defines its aspect. When this ratio is greater than unity, the planes are in the ‘broadside' aspect; when less than unity they proceed ‘end on.’ Lanchester uses the term ‘pterygord’ to imply broadside aspect, and ‘apteroid’ for edge-on aspect. In modern machines the broadside aspect is invariably adopted, and the aspect ratio is in the order of 5.

When the flyer is not a monoplane, the decks are removed from one another by a ‘gap,’ which is commonly equal in dimensions to the chord. The decks are separated by ‘struts’ fastened to the main transverse ‘spars,’ and the joint which secures these members may be either flexible or rigid, according to the underlying principle which governs the construction of the machine. Often, though not always, vertical ‘curtains’ are stretched between the decks near the extremities. In the Voisin biplane there are four such curtains , arranged so as to give a box-like construction to the extremities of the main decks. The decks themselves are either single or ‘double-surfaced.’ When single surfaced (Fig. 43), it is common practice to so arrange the fabric as

to enclose the main transverse spars in ‘pockets’ so as to avoid sharp angles. Single-surfaced decks also commonly afford a ‘ flexible trailing,’ inasmuch as the fore and aft ribs, which invariably project beyond the rear transverse spar, are usually much thinner and more flexible than those used in double-surfaced decks. The rib for a double-surfaced deck (Fig. 44) is more complicated and is itself stiffened with ‘webs.’ It encircles the main spars, and thus, when covered with fabric, affords a perfectly smooth contour above and below.”

“In addition to the main decks (Fig. 41) there are supplementary surfaces, such as a tail, rudder, elevator, prow, and balancing planes; this term also includes the side curtains. The ‘elevator’ and the ‘tail’ are carried on ‘outriggers’ formed by a light lattice girder framework, braced by struts and diagonal wire ‘ties.’ The tail consists essentially of a horizontal plane behind the main decks, but it may be elaborated into a biplane and also fitted with side curtains, as on the Voisin flyer. It is common to regard a tail as essentially including one or more horizontal supporting surfaces. The ‘rudder’ which is used for steering , is, of course, commonly behind the machine, although it may be in front in duplicate. The elevator on a biplane is placed in front, but on a monoplane the tail'may be

made to serve the purpose of an elevator. The elevator itself consists of a pivoted horizontal plane or planes arranged under the pilot’s control. Somewhere, in front of the machine, there is commonly to be found fixed a vertical plane which serves as a ‘prow ’ to give the machine sensitiveness to the rudder. For purposes of maintaining lateral stability, various devices are used, ranging from the ‘warping’ of the main planes, as in Wright’s flyer, to the use of entirely independent ‘balancing planes,’ as shown in Fig. 41. These planes have been shown for convenience as situated in the gap, but sometimes they form extensions to the main tips of the decks, and sometimes they are arranged like lips behind the trailing edge. In any case, the term ‘balancing planes’ is adequate to express the purpose of such devices for the present. The machine as a whole is either mounted on a wheeled ‘chassis,’ as in Fig. 42, or on runners. The term ‘chassis’ is used to denote the whole of that part of the construction which relates to the supporting of the machine upon the ground.”

The building of a flyer.

Timber is used for the framework of a flying machine. Short Bros. use spruce for the Wright flyers in England, while the Voisin machines are constructed of ash. Lengths 0f 12 feet may be taken as the maximum in which it would be easy for any one, outside the trade, to get ready delivery, and this determines the number of splices which have to be made in order to build up the full spar length for a given span. Ash is very flexible, and so is suited for members which have to be bent. Ash is suitable where rigidity is required. Spruce is stronger, weight for weight. In one flying machine (Moore Brabazon’s ‘ Bird of Passage’) the struts are about 6 feet apart; a broken one was replaced by a piece of spruce 1% inch wide by 1 inch deep, and the full load of the machine is, say, 1400 lbs. This may give some idea as to dimensions; it is only by experiment that sufficient stiffness is ultimately obtained for the least possible weight.

“ For the construction of gliders, which may be regarded as flying machines in which the motive power is ‘ gravity,’ pine might be preferable to either spruce or ash; it is easier to select good specimens, and in its selection rather than in the material, lies the secret of success. But experience can alone decide this point beyond two general rules: avoid knots and take wood having a reasonably straight grain.

“Bamboo is in favour with some amateurs, but the chief point in its favour is that it is ready made; a bamboo spar requires no preparation, but it is very difficult to join and fasten. This wood is suitable for kites, and it might be used for special designs of gliders, but it is difficult to make a good job of bamboo construction.

“The top and bottom spars of the biplane type of flyer, representing the front edges of the two decks, are braced together by vertical struts and diagonal piano-wire ties of, say, 19 gauge. This system of construction nominally makes all the wood members ‘struts,’ but the natural weight of the decks themselves puts the top members in tension when the machine is at rest, and when in flight this condition is reversed.

“ Rigidity and Elexilzilz'gz.—The Wright flyers are of the flexible type; they bend under the shock of landing, and at other times when unduly stressed, but their elements must be strong enough to remain rigidly in the required shape. The camber of the surfaces should be properly maintained in flight, and so the surface material must be stayed with ribs, the size of which depends on their spacing. As the ribs must be bent in the first instance, ash is very suitable; strips having a section of say,§ inch by inch, being readily bent in the steam from a boiling kettle. Ribs must be bent strictly to shape, and a template is useful as a guide; also each rib should be clamped down with its proper curvature while it sets after steaming.

“ Curz'alure of file Planes.—Opinion is divided as to the correct relationship between the clipping angle of the front edge and the trailing angle of the rear edge. The front edge must be elevated above the rear edge. Messrs. Short Bros. have suggested 7 inches as being worth trying on a full-sized machine, in which the aerofoil surface subtends a chord of, say, 4 feet 6 inches; they also give the values of 8° and 6° as plausible angles which a tangent to the front edge, and a tangent to the rear edge might make respectively with the said chord.

“ Single and Double rurfam—For surface material, one of the rubber-proof fabrics on the market should be used. In the design of decks there are two alternative types which result in a single surface or a double surface. The former is the simpler method of construction, as it involves only a single layer of fabric which is applied on the under side of the ribs. The ribs, however, should be carefully covered with strips of fabric so laid on as to avoid sharp angles in any direction. This also applies to the spars at the front and rear edges, which should be covered in some way, so as to give them the appearance of a wedge-like section.

It is for this reason that the ribs are allowed to project behind the rear spar, so that the deck may trail off into a sharp edge. In the double-surface method of construction , the ribs have to be built up in order to ensure strength and lightness. Their top and bottom members pass above and below the spars, which are thus entirely enclosed, so that both surfaces of the deck have a perfectly smooth contour.

“ Area required for a given weight. Merely as a practical figure to begin with, however, a lift of 2 lbs. per square foot should not overestimate the lifting capabilities of a machine travelling through the air at a speed of, say, from 35 to 40 miles per hour. Better effects ought to result from decks of relatively greater span than from those in which the ‘aspect ratio’ (Le. the ratio between the span and the chord or fore and aft dimension) of the surface is small. Very large spans are unwieldy, and about 40 feet is that now employed. In practice a reasonable aspect ratio seems to be about 5.

“ Area for a girder.—What has been said applies mainly to the girder except that an allowance of lb. per square foot of supporting surface would be near a proper estimate since the speed in the air would hardly exceed 20 miles per hour. This speed is made up by a head wind of, say, 15 miles an hour, which is the strongest it is safe to experiment in, and a velocity relative to the earth of 5 miles an hour, which is about as fast as two men running could succeed in launching the machine.

“ Tails and elevators.——By itself an arched aerofoil is quite unstable in flight and requires some device to ensure safety. Lanchester has shown that it is possible to convert an arched aerofoil into an automatically stable flying machine by the addition of a suitable tail member. A practical demonstration of this is seen in the Voisin flyer. Wright, however, disregards the tail, and relies on hand manipulation of an elevator for the mastery of the machine.

“The elevator has nothing to do with continuous ascent because that alone is the outcOme of an increased development of power beyond that necessary to sustain horizontal flight. The elevator is initially a controlling device for damping out elevations, but conversely, it can be used to produce them, and thus serves as a means of making the flyer ‘jump’ an obstacle. Its manipulation disturbs the distribution of pressure and it is thus a means of performing a number of useful operations. The correct size can only he arrived at by practice, but an area in the order of % or 50f the area of the main surfaces would seem to define approximately the size in use on practical machines to-day, but the best size for any particular model could only be determined by experiment, and the same may be said about the distance at which it should be mounted in front of the machine.

“Power required for flight—In a glider the motive power is gravity, and the course of flight is always inclined from a height towards the level ground, and so the machine must be constructed with the least possible resrstance.

“A motor-driven flyer must be able to overcome the attraction of gravity and sustain flight indefinitely in a horizontal path. The weight is made up of three parts: the framework and canvas, the power plant and propeller, and the Pilot.

“The propeller must be strong and of good workmanship ; if it be of faulty construction it will spoil any chance of success, and if it be weak as well, it will be a source of great danger to the Pilot.” With regard to horse-power for propelling flying machines, Sir Hiram Maxim, in “Artificial and Natural Flight,” says——

“ The lifting effect of an aeroplane, set at any practical angle, increases in direct proportion to the angle of inclination ; it also increases as the square of the velocity— double the speed and you get four times the lifting effect. This lifting effect is just as much greater than the drift or tendency to travel in a forward direction as the width of the plane is greater than the elevation of the front edge above the horizontal, so if the aeroplane is set at an angle of, say, 1 in 10, and we use I lb. pressure to propel it forwards, then the plane will lift 10 lbs., thus the lift is ten times greater than the drift . . . area alone is not sufficient. Our planes must have a certain length of entering edge, that is, the length of the front edge must bear a certain relation to the load lifted. An aeroplane I foot square will not lift one-tenth as much for the energy consumed as one 1 foot wide and 10 feet long. At all speedsrof 40 miles per hour or less, there should be at least I foot of entering edge for every 4 lbs. carried. However, at higher speeds, the length may be reduced as the square of the speed increases. . . . An aeroplane 2 feet wide and 100 feet long placed at an angle of 1 in 10, and driven edgewise through the air at a velocity of 40 miles per hour, will lift 2'5 lbs. per square foot. In constructing the framework of a flying machine it should be made with the greatest degree of lightness possible without diminishing the strength too much, and both sides should be covered with fabric if the best results are to be obtained.”

With regard to the propeller, he says, “Good results can never be obtained by placing the screw-propeller in front instead of in the rear of the machine. If the screw is in front, the backwash strikes the machine and has a decided retarding action. The framework requires much energy to drive it through the air, and all this is spent in imparting a forward motion to the air, so if we place the propeller at the rear of the machine in the centre of the greatest atmospheric resistance, it will recover part of the lost energy.” “But as we find a plane 100 feet in length too long to deal with, we may cut it into two or more pieces and place them one above the other—superposed. This enables us to reduce the width of our machine without reducing its lifting effect; we still have 100 feet of entering edge, and 200 feet of lifting surface, and we know that each foot will lift 2'5 lbs. at the speed we propose to travel, 200 X 2'5 = 500; therefore our total lifting effect is 500 lbs., and the screw thrust required to push our aeroplane through the air is T15 of this, because the angle above the horizontal is I in 10. We therefore divide, what Professor Langley has so aptly called the “ lift,” by 10, %9 = 50. It will be understood that the vertical component is the lift, and the horizontal component the drift. Our proposed speed is 40 miles per hour, or 3520 feet per minute. If we multiply the drift in pounds by the number of feet travelled per minute and divide the product thus obtained by 33,000, we ascertain the horse-power required.

It therefore takes 5'33 H.P. to carry a load of 500 lbs. at a rate of 40 miles per hour, allowing nothing for screw slip or atmospheric resistance due to framework and wires.” A flying machine, unlike a locomotive, motor-car, or steamship (in which the ratio of engine power to tonnage may be small), cannot fly at all unless the horse-power of the engine is very high in proportion to the flying capacity ; there is a certain velocity at which it must travel for its weight to be sustained at all in the air ; at a less speed the sustaining force would be reduced and the machine would tend to fall. On the other hand, at a greater speed, the sustaining power would increase considerably, therefore the power required for flight varies as the velocity is increased. Contrary to Langley’s theory, it has been found out that the. power required to fly increases as the velocity is raised, and that the power and velocity increase in about the same ratio. To double the speed of any flying machine we only require an engine of about double the size.

Motive power for model power machines—We mention below the diflerent types of motors which are used. There is the elastic motor, the spring motor, the electric motor, the steam engine, and the petrol engine.

The Elaslic Motor is not only used as the motive power for small toy models which are unable to fly with heavier motors, but it is used for large-sized models as well. It was mentioned lately in F/ig/zl that one flyer weighed 14% lbs. and was driven by two elastic motors 6 feet long, weighing 6% lbs., and driving two aluminium propellers ; also one had a pair of elastic motors 8 feet long, each containing six strands, the weight of each motor was 31b, and the total weight of the model was 2% lbs., and was said to have flown for 250 yards at one winding. Elastic cord is best when new, and ’3 inch solid cord can be had from one maker at 15:. 4d. per 1b., also T‘E inch rubber cord at 115d. per yard, or 1r. 3d. per dozen yards, and inch cord at 411. per yard.

The Spring Motor requires a fairly strong girder frame to carry it. The motor must be very light and weigh, perhaps, from 4 ozs. up to, say, 2% lbs. in weight according to the size. The Unit Electrical Co., York Buildings, Adelphi, Strand, London, inform us that they make a spring motor in two sizes. The smaller one measures 5 inches by % inches, and gives a pull of 7 ozs. at the outside of a 12-inch propeller, price 12:. 6d., and the larger * one is 5 inches by 3.13 inches, and, at 100 revolutions, gives a pull of 13% ozs. at the outside edge of a 12-inch propeller. The price is 17:. 60’. They are flanged for fixing to the planes. The first is 5% ozs., and the second is 10% ozs. in weight. The Elam-1': Molar would be very suitable for a small— sized model were it not that the latter must carry a battery in addition, so the flying machine must be of some size in order to do this. One of these motors would be suitable for a captive flying machine which would be suspended from a cord and fly round a circle, current being conveyed to the'motor by flexible wires from a battery placed on the floor or table. Specially light motors are advertised by one maker, each weighs 3 ozs., overall dimensions 2% inches by 1% inch, and takes 1% amps. at 4 volts. The Economic Electrical Co., London, sell motors, weighing 3 ozs., at 7;. 611. each, with 9-oz. accumulator at 4s., and they say they run 12 minutes at full speed.

Sleam is a good motive power, but it is difficult to use, and there is danger of the flying machine getting burnt should the spirit tank upset on a descent being made. The best way will be to have a strong boiler, with a pressure gauge and safety valve, raise steam to about 40 lbs. per square inch, remove the lamp, and also the pressure gauge to save weight (there must be a cock in the pressure gauge pipe), start the engine (which may have a slide valve, or a double-acting oscillating cylinder), and let it run, so long as there is steam left in the boiler. There will be considerable condensation, but this is unavoidable. One engineering firm advertises a three-cylinder engine, and a flash steam generator, which, with water, tank, and pump, all connected ready for fixing to the flying machine, weighs 4 lbs. 2 ozs. The steam is superheated, and the engine has been tested with a r foot 6 inch two-bladed propeller.

The internal combustion or petrol engine, is, we consider , the ideal type of motor for a flying machine. Unfortunately this engine, as yet, cannot be constructed sufficiently small and light to propel a small flyer, but it will be suitable for a large-size model. We have been at some trouble to find out if a suitable engine can be made and light enough to serve our purpose as a motive power. We give below the result of our inquiries. The Madison Dynamo Co., Derby, say they will put on the market, provided there be a demand for such, a small petrol engine, cylinder, 1 inch bore, air cooled, aluminium cased, weight 2% lbs. complete, with sparking plug, contact breaker, at 35s.; castings, with cylinder bored, full set at 8x. 611., weight of battery 1} 1b., tank full 6 ozs.; coil I lb. or thereabouts ; total weight under 5 lbs.

Mr. Porter, engineer, Newbury, makes a small petrol engine, cylinder 1% inch bore, stroke 2 inches, piston with two piston rings, aluminium crank-case, runs with a 1 foot 6 inch propeller, at, say, 2000 revolutions per minute; total weight 5.1; lbs., finished, price is £5 15s., castings 18s. 6d., fitting piston 10:.

The S. & P. Engine Co., Coventry, make a smaller petrol engine than the above,- cylinder 1% inch bore, 1} inch stroke, working speed 1600 revolutions per minute, aluminium crank case, enclosed fly wheels, total weight, 3% lbs. Weight of coil 6 ozs., battery 8 ozs. Total weight complete for fitting to aeroplane is 4 lbs. 9 ozs. Castings 11:. per set, with cylinder bored and piston turned and fitted with piston, 16:. Complete engine £2. Through the courtesy of the makers we are permitted to give an illustration of this engine (Fig. 45). They say it will drive a 16-inch propeller.

Other makers are putting model petrol engines on the market, but the above are those we have had communication with on this subject. Many makers of aeroplanes are now catering for the wants of amateurs and are selling material for constructing model aeroplanes, such as elastic, miniature bicycle wheels, tightening screws, wire strainers, eye bolts, strut sockets, tension wire, aluminium rods and tubing, magnalium rods and binding wires, propellers, wood strips, bamboo, cane, and fabric for covering the surfaces. Among these makers we notice the name of Messrs. T. W. Clarke and Co., aeronautical engineers, Kingston-on-Thames, who not only supply material, and complete models, but also construct gliding machines by which actual gliding experiments can be performed by the enthusiastic amateur.

With regard to magnalium, which is being advertised by makers as suitable for aeroplane construction, we think it is better fitted for model making than aluminium (it is an alloy of aluminium and magnesium), which is troublesome to cast, solder, etc. This metal is stronger and tougher than aluminium, makes good castings, can be screwed, soldered, forged, and welded.

Special varnish is sold by model makers for varnishing over the fabric and other parts of aeroplanes. A light waterproof silk has lately been introduced, by a model maker, under the name of “ Dermisilk,” suitable for aeroplanes and models, ranging in price from 2:. to 5;. per square yard according to the strength of the silk. Great enthusiasm is being manifested at the present time, all over the world, especially in France, Germany, and America, with regard to flying machines and navigable balloons. England has, perhaps, hitherto not been quite so much in evidence as other countries in her enthusiasm and experiments, still she is giving the subject her attention, as is evidenced by the experiments of Mr. Cody, with an aeroplane, near to Aldershot, and by the London newspapers which are trying to stir up enthusiasm on the subject; besides, a number of Members of Parliament have formed themselves into a committee for the purpose of advising Government to set about developing aeronautics for military and naval purposes. The Daily Mail has also started subscriptions to a fund which, when it reaches the sum of £20,000, is to be used for buying a navigable balloon for the nation; the same paper also offers a £1000 prize competition for a one mile flight. Another newspaper has given £5000 for the erection of a shed at Wormwood Scrubbs to house the balloon. M. Bleriot won £1000 from the same newspaper by his Cross-Channel flight. The aviator who first flies from London to Manchester will earn £10,000.” Facilities will be given to aeroplanists by the army authorities to use the army grounds and sheds at Salisbury Plain.

The Aero Club of the United Kingdom, and the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, have been formed in London. The former has flying grounds at Shellbeach, and the latter at Dagenham, where members can experiment with full-sized flying machines or models. Aero clubs are being formed in many provincial towns in England. Some of them hold exhibitions and flying competitions for models. In Scotland, the Scottish Aeronautical Society has its headquarters in Glasgow. A model section of this Society has been formed, and it is known as The Scottish Aeronautical Society, Glasgow Model Section. The Daily Record and Mail offers £1000 prize to the aviator who flies from Edinburgh to Glasgow on an “all Scotch” machine. The Proprietors of the Edinburgh Marine Gardens offer £500 to the man who successfully flies across the Forth from Portobello.

On the Continent the first Aeroplane races were inaugurated , at Rheims, in 1909, they stirred up much enthusiasm, and since then there was a flying week at both Blackpool and Doncaster, in England. Aeronautical Engineering is being taught in London.

M. Basil Zaharoff has given, to the Paris University, the sum of £28,000 for the foundation of a Chair of Aviation, and M. Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe has presented the sum of £25,000 and an annual subvention of £800 for the establishment of an Aero-Technical Institute in Germany.

We are new progressing in all matters pertaining to Aeronautics, and what may be accomplished in the future no man can prophesy, but it is certain that great advances may be confidently expected.