Steam propelled vehicles and automobile carriages

In the improvement of our roads, the stone-breaker stands first in importance for producing the material, and the road roller gives the finishing touch. These constitute the main expense in making and keeping our roads in repair. The road scraper, picks, shovels, and barrows belong to every community. Good roads are necessary not only for the success of the automobile, but for a better highway for all purposes. They may be said to be the foundation of civilization; for rapid and easy communication is a mode of education.

The activities of a people keep pace with their means of communication. It is in evidence that civilization improves as the various phases of human activity are commingled by the better means of transport for business or pleasure, and what the railways have done in the long run, good roads will do for the by-ways. Let the interests of the League of American Wheelmen and the automobile clubs join as a united force to push legislation, not only of States, but to push the good road interests with counties and towns, that the United States may soon rival its European models in good roads.

Road rollers of the harrisburg foundry and machine company, harrisburg, pa.

In Figs. 51 and 52 are represented the latest improvement in road rollers that are quickly convertible for picking the surface or for plowing roads for repairs. They are also used for rolling dam or reservoir embankments. They are built in sizes of 10, 12 1/2 and 15 tons weight; these weights having been found most desirable for road work. This company also build special road locomotives, for heavy haulage and freight transportation. They are built to carry a steam boiler pressure of i50 pounds per square inch, have double cylinders, and can climb grades of 20 per cent. Their water tank and fuel bunker have a capacity for four hours' continuous work. For traction work the time capacity may be increased by additional tank and fuel storage . Every operative detail is centered convenient to the engineer on the platform at the rear of the boiler, over which a cab is placed.

The cuts show much of the constructive principles and methods of operation, making it unnecessary to detail the parts for control of the motion of these road rollers.

Traction engine of the frick company.

The traction engines of American builders have varying features of novelty, all claiming good points of construction. The tractors built by the Frick Company, Waynesboro, Pa., have no exception in good points, which cover their universal use for hauling loaded vehicles, for plowing, road

risburg, P.A.

ng and rolling roads

scraping, road rolling, and for portable power for all kinds of agricultural work.

In the constructive detail of these engines, the engine, gearing and main axle are mounted independent of the boiler, relieving it of the working strain of the machinery. Cushion main gear, for preventing shock; compensating gear with locking lever; elastic steering gear and a friction clutch in the fly-wheel, which gives the whole tension of the gear on down grades.

The company build four sizes of their traction engines, from 10 to 17 horse-power, and from 4 1/2 to 7 tons weight.

A compound traction engine.

In Fig. 54 is represented a steam traction engine with compound cylinders set tandem, as made by Robinson & Co., Richmond, Ind., who build five sizes of traction engines with single cylinders, from i0 to i8 horse power. The transmission of power from the engine shaft is through a train of spur-gear and pinions to internal toothed spurwheels fixed to each driving wheel. The through shaft for connecting both driving wheels has a compensating gear in the last spur-gear of the train. The axle of the driving wheels is bent under the boiler

and mounted with springs in guide boxes riveted to the boiler shell. The vibrating motion of the wheels from roughness of the road is taken up by the springs vertically while the distance between the axle and driving pinion centers remain constant.

The slide valve is controlled by a reversing link and lever, which also sets the cut-off when power is required, as for running threshing machines, saws, etc. A friction clutch on the fly-wheel of the engine, operated by a link and lever under the hand of the driver, controls the engine with great power on down grades.

The new birdsall traction engine.

In Fig. 55 is illustrated the new Birdsall traction engine, built by the new Birdsall Company, Auburn, N. Y., who also build a road roller on similar lines of the traction engine.

The mounting of the boiler and engine is upon a through shaft at the rear of the fire box with coil springs upon the axle boxes and a frame to carry the driving pinion shaft. A fore and aft driving shaft transmits the power from the engine with bevel gear, so that by its slight oscillation the springs are compensated. The differential gear is within the large spur-gear on the main shaft, and is provided with cushion springs to prevent shock when starting or reversing. The traction wheels are of a novel construction; their face being made of angle iron lugs placed in reversed diagonals and riveted to angle iron tires.

The spokes are of flat iron, in basket form, and riveted to the flanged hubs and tires; a strong form of construction. The open face of the driving wheels gives the engine greater power of pull on soft ground, and prevents sticking of earth clods on the wheel face.

The forward axle is fixed horizon tall)' to the boiler with brackets, and pivoted vertically for inequalities in the road or ground. The steering wheels are pivoted to the ends of the axles with arms and connecting link for the two wheels.

A worm gear sector on one of the pivot arms, operated by a rod a*nd wheel at the rear end of the boiler near the engine levers, gives complete control of the engine to the driver on the platform.

Motor vehicles for heavy traffic.

The steam lorry, or dray, is attracting much attention in England, and a large number are in use in Liverpool and other large cities and manufacturing centers. Their capacity for different sized drays range from 2 to tons.

In Fig. 56 is illustrated the Leyland four-ton dray, the dimensions of which are: extreme length, i8 feet; width, 6 feet 5 inches; wheel base, 9 feet ii inches; tread, 5 feet 3 inches; wheels, 39 inches diameter; height of platform, 45 inches; frame of steel; front tires, 4 inches wide; driving tires, 5 inches wide.

The boiler is of the vertical cylindrical tubular type, with a burner using kerosene oil with a vaporizer, consuming about 5^ gallons of oil per vehicle mile with a four-ton load.

The self-propelled fire engine.

Fig. 57 illustrates the horseless fire engine built by the Manchester Locomotive Works, Manchester, N. H. The steam-propelled fire engine is not a new idea in this line. Capt. Ericsson constructed a steam driven fire engine about i840. Lee & Learned built one in New York about i862. Many steam-driven fire engines are in use in France. The fire engine illustrated is in use in Boston, New Orleans and Hartford, and are credited as the largest in the world. They are 8} tons, and can throw 1,350 gallons of water per minute to a horizontal distance of 348 feet, through 50 feet of leading hose.

Their boilers, as in ordinary fire engines, are of the upright tubular type, the shell being steel plate and the tubes of seamless copper. The power is transmitted from one end of the main crank-shaft of the engine, through an equalizing compound and two endless chains, running over sprocket wheels on each of the rear road wheels, permitting the wheels to be driven at various speeds when turning corners. The driving power is made reversible, so that the engine may be driven either forward or backward on the road at will. The steering of the engine is effected by means of a hand wheel at the front moving the fore axle through a system of bevel and worm gearing, so arranged that the constant exertion of the driver is not required to keep the vehicle in line on the road. By the removal of a key the driving power may be disconnected from the road

driving gearing when it is desired to work the pumps with the vehicle standing still. The connecting mechanism between the steam cylinders and the pumps is of the familiar cross-head and connectingrod type, and the pumps and other parts are of the kind generally utilized by this firm in the construction of ordinary horse-drawn fire engines.

These engines have a speed capacity for twelve miles per hour, and can climb grades equal to any horse-propelled fire engine.

The baldwin steam automobile.

In Fig. 58 is shown an outline of the steam surrey and in Fig. 59, the trap or dos-ados of the Baldwin Automobile Company, Providence , R. I. The boiler in the surrey is placed under the rear seat and the engine under the front seat; from which

the driving by chain is extended to a sprocket on the rear axle. In the trap or dos-a-dos the boiler and engine are more compact, are entirely enclosed and dust-proof. The boiler is of the vertical tube type and contains some 300 tubes, and it is estimated that it will stand a pressure of i,000 pounds, although the working pressure is but i00 to i25 pounds per square inch. The engine is steam-jacketed and weighs but 38 pounds. It will develop from 4 to 6 horse power, is reversible, and is fitted with nickel-steel valves and valve faces. The exhaust steam as it leaves the engine is conveyed to a patented combined condenser and cooler, and from there is returned to the water tank. In hill climbing , where the steam used is considerable, the surplus passes through an ingeniously-devised muffler and escapes without noise. The exhaust steam also passes through a coil in the gasoline tank and raises the temperature so that a light pressure is automatically obtained without use of the hand pump. The surrey and trap are both fitted with brakes and all

accessories. The burner beneath the boiler is regulated bv the boiler pressure. The tanks for carrying water and fuel, are so constructed that the contents will not be affected by the motion of the carriage.

To start the engine a hand pump is used to pump air into the gasoline tank to give the requisite feed pressure to the burner. A small receptacle is filled with wood alcohol (gasoline may be used) and after being lighted is set under the burner to give it the necessary initial heat to vaporize the gasoline. The burners are lighted from this by the turning of a cock, and after a brief time to get up steam the vehicle is ready to operate.

Once started it requires no further attention beyond that required to see that the fuel and water supplies are not exhausted. The steam pressure regulates automatically by means of a diaphragm and valve the supply of fuel. In case the vehicle is left standing the supply of gasoline is cut off from one or two of the three burners as the steam pressure rises, and the third supplies merely enough heat to enable the vehicle to be started again at a moment's notice. The vehicle may be left a few minutes or hours without danger, with no consumption of water and only a very small consumption of fuel.

The engine is of the two-cylinder double-acting vertical variety. It is very carefully constructed and exceedingly light, and at the same time strong. The cylinders (2^-inch bore and 4^-inch stroke) are set on the circumference of a circle struck from the center of the boiler and lie snug up against the latter, while the steam chest is located at an angle between the two cylinders, making a very compact arrangement. The clearance is small in the cylinder heads, the steam ports being wide but not deep. The exhaust ports are of ample size and open direct into a jacket surrounding the entire cylinder, giving at once an exhaust with little back pressure and a steam jacket for the cylinder. The exhaust steam is carried from this steam jacket to the combined muffler and condenser and then passes through the fuel tank in the shape of hot water, maintaining a sufficient pressure in the tank (if the fuel be gasoline) to avoid the necessity of any hand pumping. Thence the hot water passes to the water cooler in the dashboard, composed of a number of horizontal tubes, through each of which the water is compelled to pass before it is returned to the supply tank.

The feed water is automatically pumped from the supply tank to the boiler, but a hand pump is also provided for contingent use.

The milwaukee automobile company.

The carriages of this company, which is located at Milwaukee , Wis., are of the Stanhope or runabout style. The elevation of the Stanhope is shown in Fig. 60, and a plan of the running gear in Fig. 6i. This company have adopted steam as a motive power as a well-tried and old servant and its ease of handling as well as its freedom from cumbersome transmission and reversing gear.

The frame consists, as will be seen, of a front and rear truss securely tied together by distance tubes, which contain universal joints. This entire structure is built of i|-inch seamless tubing, strongly braced together, and has frame connections of steel of the best quality, riveted and brazed in place.

The front truss carries the front wheels and complete steering linkage. This apparatus enables a movement of 6b° to be given the front wheels, which controls the carriage with ease at any speed, and which will turn it completely around in a i5 foot circle.

The rear truss carries the driving mechanism and rear wheels. A compensating gear is provided in the middle of this truss to allow for unequal speed of each rear wheel. The gears of this device are of crucible steel, while the axles are the best quality of open-hearth machinery steel, and the hubs are keyed on in the most secure manner. The main driving sprocket (which also carries the brake shoe) hns 30 teeth, i-inch pitch and 5/16 inch wide.

The bearings throughout are of tool steel, hardened and ground to a finish. They have ball retainers, and are dustproof .

Steam is generated in a vertical tubular boiler i2 inches high and i8 inches in diameter, containing 2i3 copper tubes. It is regulated automatically and has all of the appliances for safety and inspection. The gasoline fuel is contained in a tank of 3.7 gallons capacity, situated in the footboard, not shown in the cuts.

The water tank has a capacity of i5 gallons and surrounds the boiler. The exhaust passes through this tank. The engine is of the vertical, two-cylinder marine type, and runs at the rate of about 400 revolutions per minute at its highest efficiency, claimed to be between six and seven horse power. The power is transmitted by chain to the rear axle and gives the vehicle a maximum speed of 25 miles an hour. It will travel i0 miles on one gallon of gasoline and carries sufficient fuel and water in the tanks for 40 miles without replenishing.

The vehicle has a wheel-base of 58 inches and is fitted with 28-inch wheels, equipped with 2 1/2-inch pneumatic tires. The running gear is made of seamless steel tubing with drop-forged connections throughout. The frame is braced and provision is made for allowing the wheels to adapt themselves to the inequalities of the road.

The operator sits on the right hand of the vehicle, steering with his left hand and controlling the steam valve and brake with the right hand and foot, respectively. He also has the reverse lever and pump valve within easy reach, while the water glass and steam gauge are conveniently located for occasional inspection. Owing to the automatic regulation the operator is required to attend only to the steering and throttle valve.

The company also supply independently, running gear and steam parts.

Steam automobiles of the stanley type.

Some of the most successful all-round steam motor carriages are now being built by the Locomobile Company, of America, whose works are at Newton and Westboro, Mass., with offices at No. ii Broadway, New York City.

In Fig. 62 is illustrated their Stanhope, or light runabout, and in Figs. 63 and 64 their top Stanhope suitable for family or physicians' use. In Fig. 65 is illustrated their steam surrey, or touring wagon; a light and elegant vehicle for parties on long pleasure trips. The wheels of these vehicles are constructed on advanced bicycle principles and of strength equal to their requirement

of service. The lighter vehicles are provided with pneumatic tires 2$ inches diameter, and with side lamps, cyclometer , bell and tools complete.

The running gear is of especial design and consists of steel truss, ball-bearing axles, with a double reach, mounted on four steel wheels, fitted with pneumatic tires. The rear axle is connected in the center by a compensating gear, which permits one wheel to move more rapidly than the other in making a turn. The front axle is stationary. The front wheels are connected by a swivel joint attached to the

steering gear. The steering lever is conveniently placed, assuring the positive control of the carriage with ease and quickness.

Behind the seat of the carriage is a small square opening into which the water is placed. It can be poured in with a hose, bucket, or any kind of a vessel and goes immediately into the water tank, which connects with the boiler. The tank has a capacity of i7 gallons, will run the carriage forty miles on ordinary roads and can be filled at any time or place at the rider's option. After the water is in the tank it is supplied to the boiler by a power pump connected direct to the boiler and provided with a by-pass to the tank, giving the operator full and perfect control of the water supply to the boiler. The gasoline supply is automatically controlled and can be left with steam on, without any danger whatever .

The plan, Fig. 66, carries its own explanation generally. W. G. is the water gauge. The short lever, R, R', operates the link motion. The small handle, W, opens the pump valve. The long handle controls the steam valve.

The elevation, Fig. 67, shows the position of the water tank, boiler, engine, air and gasoline tank, with part of the piping and operating devices.

The boiler is of an upright pattern, nicely fitting the space allotted for it. and contains forty-four square feet of heating surface. It is tested by cold water pressure to 750 pounds, and is provided with an automatic relief set to i70 pounds pressure, absolutely eliminating any danger whatever .

The shell of the boiler consists of a length of i6-gauge seamless, drawn, copper tubing, i4 inches in diameter by i4 inches deep. A half-inch flange is formed at top and bottom, to which the tube-sheets are riveted. A steam-tight joint is secured by brazing in the shell flange between the tubeplate and a steel ring on the under side of the flange, and riveting through. The boiler is then put in a lathe and two layers of piano wire are wound on the shell under a moderate tension. One-half inch copper tubes, to the number of 298, are then expanded into the two tube-plates. The boiler, as thus completed, has a total heating surface of 42 square feet. It is hydraulically tested to 750 pounds pressure and when ready to be put in place it weighs i05 pounds. It is covered with a thick layer of asbestos lagging, outside of which is an envelope of Russia iron.. The gasoline is carried in a copper tank, capable of holding three gallons, which is stowed beneath the foot board.

The tank is kept under a pressure of 35 pounds to the square inch and is connected by a pipe with a reserve air tank. The air pipe leads in at the top of the tank, and a branch pipe runs to a pressure gauge in front of the dashboard . The gasoline is forced out of the supply tank through a pipe which leads to the bottom of one of the boiler flues, to which it connects The oil flows up through the flue, then by means of a pipe across the top of the boiler to another flue, down which it is led until it emerges from the bottom of the boiler to the pipe, A, Fig. 68, where it may be controlled by two hand-operated needle valves, as shown in the regulator, Fig. 68. In passing through the boiler the gasoline is vaporized, and its admission to the burner is controlled by means of an automatic needle-valve, which is operated by the pressure of the water of the boiler upon the diaphragm at B, Fig. 68. The diaphragm is so adjusted that when the boiler pressure exceeds 160 pounds, the valve will be closed, shutting off the supply of vapor.

The regulating valve is adjusted by the spring shown near the diaphragm. The steam pressure is thus automatically controlled through the burner, which, when the boiler has once been started, requires no further attention on the part of the operator. In order to prevent the tire from going out altogether when the vapor is shut off, a bypass of very small cross-section is provided on the needle valve, which allows sufficient fuel to pass to keep the burner alight. The second needle valve, shown in the regulator. Fig. 68, is for

connecting a vaporizing pipe to be heated by a torch to start the burner before the boiler is hot enough to vaporize by the tube connections within it. The operation of the regulator valve is exceedingly prompt, and the device is one of the most pleasing among the many ingenious features of the locomobile.

The engine is located in front of the boiler and is secured to the frame of the body. It is shown so clearly in Fig. 69 as to need no detailed description. It is a remarkably well designed and built two-cylinder engine of the locomotive type with Stevenson link motion and ordinary D-valves. The cylinders are 2 1/2 inches diameter, 4 inches stroke, and valves set to cut off at j{ stroke at the full movement of the links. The framing is of brass, and a special feature is the fact that the engine has ball-bearings both on the crank pins and the crank-shaft bearings. The engines are bolted to the wooden cross bracing of the body near the cylinders, and the lower part of the engine frame is kept in place by means of a strut, which extends from the engine frame back to the rear frame of the carriage. The strut is provided with a right and left hand turnbuckle,

which enables the slack of the chain to be taken up when necessary . To allow for the slight movement due to this adjustment , the steam pipe is connected with the top of the steamchest by means of a U-pipe provided with expansion joints. The driving of the rear axle is effected by means of a twelvetooth sprocket on the engine shaft and a twenty-four-tooth sprocket on the compensating gear-box on the rear axle The burner consists of a sheetsteel cylinder of about the same diameter as the boiler, and is carried, as shown in Fig. 67, immediately below the latter; within the outer cylinder is a smaller inner one, into which the vaporized gasoline is fed. It is provided with ii4 short vertical copper tubes, which extend from the bottom of the burner, where they are open to the air, to the top plate of the vapor cylinder. The air passes in through these tubes, and at the top it meets the gasoline vapor, which issues from the cylinder through a large number of small holes around the air tubes, the vapor and the air commingling and burning with the familiar Bunsen flame, immediately below the lower tube-sheet of the boiler.

The boiler is fed by means of a little feed pump, which is operated from the cross-head of the engine. The water is led from the tank by means of a rubber pipe, and it may be cut off by a cock, before the check valve, which is just in front of the pump, is reached. There are three check valves in all between the water tank and boiler and they all work in the same direction. From the feed-pump the water is forced directly to the boiler. A pipe leads from the feed pump to a by-pass, which is worked by a lever, placed conveniently at the hand of the driver. By turning this lever the feed, when the boiler is full, can be thrown back directly into the tank. The boiler is supposed, normally, to carry about 8 inches of water above the tube-sheet, leaving 5 inches of steam space; but an inch or two either way in the water level is not of serious consequence, the boiler steaming satisfactorily even when there is only an inch of water over the lower tube-sheet. A water-glass on the outside of the vehicle body shows at a glance the water level. By arranging a mirror on the dash board, the driver can have the water-glass continually under his eye. Check valves are provided above and below the water-glass, so that if the glass should break there would be no rush of steam or water from the boiler.

On a level road, at a speed of i0 or i2 miles per hour, the steam is usually maintained at a pressure of i50 pounds to the square inch. The pop-valve is set at 240 pounds. In operating the locomobile, one is impressed with a sense of the reserve power of the boiler and engines, the carriage starting from rest with a wonderfully rapid acceleration, jumping to full speed, if desired, within a very few lengths. This is the type of vehicle that ascended Mount Washington , 6,300 feet, in a run of 8 miles in two hours and ten minutes. It can climb a grade of 14 per cent. at 15 miles per hour. It has overcome, unaided, a grade of 300 without difficulty.

The clark steam automobile.

In Fig. 70 is illustrated the steam dos-a-dos built by Edward S. Clark, 278 Freeport Street, Boston, Mass. It weighs about 1,200 pounds, with equipment, ready to run. Wire wheels, 30 and 34 inches diameter; pneumatic tires, 3

inches diameter; the frame of steel tubing; front axle tubular; rear axle solid. Vertical handles for steering and operating the links, for all speeds and reversing, are placed in the middle of the seat, so that the operator may sit on either side of the seat. The band-brake lever is also in the middle of the foot-board, and can be operated from either side of the seat.

Fig. 71 represents the boiler, the shell of which is made of steel-plate No. i0 wire gauge. The heads are flange steel, 1 inch thick, riveted to the shell and calked as in ordinary boiler practice. The boiler is 16 inches diameter, 14 inches high outside of tube heads, and 21 inches high, over all, from bottom of burner to top of hood. It contains 360 copper tubes £ inch diameter, weighs i40 pounds, and is suited for a double cylinder engine, 2 1/2 by 4 inches, running at 150 pounds boiler pressure.

The Clark engines are all double cylinder and of two models, in regard to their operating gear. The Class A

are built in four sizes, viz., 2 1/4 x 4, 2 1/2 x 4, 2 3/4 x 4 and 3x4 inches bore and stroke. The cylinders are of close grain cast iron; the frame of steel and bronze; crank shaft a solid steel forging; crossheads and all bearings of phosphor bronze; pistons of steel, with cast-iron spring rings.

The valves are operated by a small independent shaft geared to the crank shaft, and the engine reversed by a sliding sleeve on the valve shaft, which reverses the motion of the slide valves. The pump for feeding the boiler is operated by an arm on the cross-head, as shown in the cut, Fig. 72. The weight of the engine, as shown in the cut, is 50 pounds.

Mr. Clark furnishes boilers with fittings, burner, regulator complete, as shown in the cut, and the engine, to parties who wish to assemble their vehicles and motive power themselves.

The Class B engines, Fig. 73, of Mr. Clark's construction are built on the same lines and material as Class A, with the exception of the valve gear, which is operated by four eccentrics on the crank shaft connected to a pair of links, locomotive style. The driving sprocket is placed in the center of the shaft between the eccentrics. The Class B are made in two sizes, 2^x3 and 2i x 3^ bore and stroke. The smaller size engine, as shown in the cut, weighs 35 pounds.