Motive power and running gear
The "yrtle" two cycle gasoline motor.
In Fig. 104 is illustrated the motor made by the Denison Electric tngineering Company, New Haven, Conn. The motor is shown in parts that its construction may be more readily seen and described. They are built in suitable sizes for automobile, stationary and marine work. The sizes at present are a 3 1/2 horse power, with single cylinder, 41 inches diameter, 6 inches stroke. A 4 horse power, with double cylinder, 4-inch dkam., 4^-inch stroke, also double and triple cylinder motors of the first named size. This company also furnish blue prints of these motors and pirtsin detail, suitable for working drawings.
The crank shaft is forged from the solid, and counter-balanced , is shown to the right; against it rests the rotary valve plate, M, which in use slips over the end of the crank shaft and fits loosely on a boss made to receive it. The plate, M, is driven positively by the small pin, R, shown on the left hand crank throw, and is spring-seated on the crank case cover, C, shown at left of fly wheel. As the crank revolves (in a spray of oil which gives perfect lubrication to all the moving parts), this plate, M, opens and closes the suction port, S, and transfer port, A, with absolute certainty, and also preventing the charge while being compressed in the
base, from blowing up the transfer pipe and around the sides of the piston, and out of the exhaust port, as the packing rings on the bottom of the piston cannot prevent this side leak. As soon as a piston wears even a small amount, this leakage is bound to take place, and is sure to produce loss of power, and even prevent the engine from running unless provision is made for preventing it. The rotary valve, M, is subjected to only nominal wear, as the compression in the crank case dues not exceed fifteen pounds, and only the cold charge and oil come in contact with it. The valve, M, also is so arranged that it makes a perfect seat, and would continue to do so even should the crank shaft wear badly out of line. The remainder of the parts hardly call for further explanation. One feature of very great importance, however—the constant down-thrust—is in marked contrast to engines of the four-cycle type. In four-cycle engines the slightest lost motion in the connecting rod or bearings requires instant adjustment, otherwise the engine will pound itself, while in this engine, the thrust always being down, will not pound, and no damage will result even after parts and bearings are badly worn. Stuffing boxes are provided at the ends of bearings or baffle rings on the crank shaft, so the charge cannot leak out, no matter how much the bearing and shaft should wear.
The system of vaporization consists essentially of a supply tank, which is somewhat lower than the vaporizing receptacle , and a gasoline circulating pump, which, while the engine is running, pumps a small amount of gasoline into the receptacle which is attached to the air suction pipe. In order to make this reliable, the pump pumps faster than the gasoline is used, the surplus flowing back into the tank. This results in an absolutely even height of gasoline in receptacle, irrespective of vibration, and, as there are no valves in this receptacle, there is nothing to get out of order.
The air is drawn into the suction pipe through openings, and siphons up the exact amount of gasoline, which is adjusted by a micrometer screw, and one adjustment only, is necessary for a given engine.
The speed of the engine is controlled by two throttling valves on one stem, operated by a hand lever. These valves so adjust the flow of air that the proper amount of gasoline is siphoned up so as to make a perfect explosive mixture under all conditions, whether light or heavy explosions, slow or full speed, hot, cold, damp or foggy weather. No change or adjustment is required from summer to winter running, as the explosive mixture is further mixed and also warmed, by the violent agitation it receives at the crank case, previous to its transfer to top side of piston, and subsequent compression before the explosion takes place. This method admits of the use of less volatile and cheaper grades of gasoline than can be employed where the carbureting system is used.
The sparker is of the make and break type, with an adjustable and instantaneous snap motion, which is worked from the outside of the cylinder by a connection from the eccentric which operates the gasoline and water circulating pumps. This type of sparker is found to be the most durable , the least liable to become over-heated, and the most economical of current. The adjustment or timing of the spark can be regulated to a nicety, while the engine is running ; a convenience when engines are being adjusted to some special class of work, as the timing of the spark is a very important item in the efficiency and in speeding the engine.
The sparker is so economical of current that almost any form of battery will answer; a good dry battery, or Sampson Batteries give excellent results, although we recommend , the Edison Lalande Battery as more durable and satisfactory in the long run.
Running gear of a french gasoline carriage.
In Fig. 105 is illustrated the carriage gear made by Chesnay , De Falletane & Co., Dijon, France. The motor is of the air-cooled type, and set vertically in the fore box, which is also used as a seat.
In addition to the rib flanges, the sprinkling cylinder cooling device, illustrated in Fig. i06, is used, and which also illustrates the vaporizing and air-mixing device. In the transmission mechanism four speeds are provided. The motor shaft is pinioned to a counter shaft, on which is mounted a four step cone pulley, connected by a single belt to a similar pulley on a second counter shaft. A belt-tightening pulley is controlled by a foot pedal. The difficulty of shifting the belt on step cone pulleys is overcome by coning the steps, so that the shifting fork will carry the belt from one step to another with ease. As the tightening pulley is let go, the slack in the belt allows it to readily follow the shifting fork without strain.
From the counter shaft the power is transmitted by sprockets and chain to the rear axle, which is provided with a compensating gear. A friction clutch in the second counter shaft pulley is operated by a toggle joint link and the lever handle at A, at the side of the seat; its further movement operates a band brake on the second counter shaft. A band brake on the driving axle at the side of the sprocket is operated by the foot pedal at C. At K is the handles of the cylinder relief cock, and the index handle at H, sets the vapor and air mixer at G, as illustrated in the cut of the cylinder cooling device, Fig. i06.
Novel cylinder cooling device.
In Fig. 106 is shown the method of cylinder cooling devised by the Borguignonne Automobile Company, of Dijon, France. By this arrangement a three horse-power motor could be kept sufficiently cool by the use of less than a gallon of water for a 200-mile run, thus largely reducing the weight of water otherwise stored in tanks and aircooled coils. The cut shows the relative conditions of the system of using the heat of the exhaust for vaporizing the gasoline, and at the same time for producing pressure in the water tank to make an intermittent forced spray upon the wing flanges of the cylinder. In operation, the exhaust passes from the cylinder through the pipe, B, to the muffler tank, O, and from the opposite end turns down towards the ground. The pressure in the exhaust pipe is sufficient to force part of the exhaust through the small pipe, D, to the vaporizer at B, and using part of the heat of the exhaust at F to keep up the temperature in the vaporizer and transmit a modified pressure to the water tank, H, through the small pipe, J. A double barrelled cock, at G, acting as a diluter, is operated by the driver through two levers and link rods, . which regulates the quantity and proportion of air and vapor.
The pressure of the exhaust in the water-tank, at H, which is located so that the water will not siphon over through the spray pipes, produces a spray flow with each exhaust through the nozzles at Fand W, so distributed that the water will flow over the surface of the wing flanges.
It is now well understood that the greatest economy and power in explosive motors is not derived from excessively cool cylinders, but better working effect and increased power can be obtained with cylinder temperatures near to the water-boiling point.
Gasoline vehicle motors.
The Lowell Model Company, Lowell, Massachusetts, manufacture small gasoline motors for tricycles and very light carriages. Fig. 107 is their three-quarter actual horse-power motor, which is of the two cycle compression type, having an impulse at each revolution and is reversible. The cylinder , which is of the ribbed or air-cooled type, is contained in one casting with the crank chamber, three-inch diameter . by three-inch stroke of piston; extreme height, i4 inches;
width over bearings, 8 1/2 inches; length of shaft, 12 inches; weight, without fly-wheel, 46 pounds. If extreme lightness is required, aluminum is used in some of the parts, reducing the weight of the motor to 26 pounds, which is a desirable weight for bicycles and tricycles. A close regulation of speed is obtained by a specially devised valve in the transfer port, the handle of which is shown on , the left of the cylinder in the cut. Lugs cast on the crank chamber allow the motor to be attached in any desired position on a vehicle. Ignition is electric and its device is fitted for either the jump spark or a sparking coil, as desired.
The company also furnish these motors with extended shafts (Fig. i08) tor boats of light build from i2 to i4 feet long. When used for that purpose they are fitted with a base, thrust collar and wheel. They also furnish other sizes, with single and double cylinders, up to six horse power.
The straight line duplex motor.
Fig. 109 illustrates a form of gasoline four cycle motor of French origin, and now adopted, with modifications, in England and the United States by a number of motor carriage builders. The cylinders are offset just enough to allow of a double crank at 1800, so that ignition may take place at the
The cylinders are aircooled by radial ribs, which are found efficient on the smaller sized motors for carriages and tricycles.
The Crest Manufacturing Company, Dorchester, Massachusetts , are building motors similar to this pattern with modified details for carriage and cycle builders To prevent an explosive engine from vibrating, it is not only necessary to perfectly balance all moving parts, but also to balance the explosive impulses. It is a well-known law of mechanics that "action and reaction are equal and opposite." When firing a gun the explosive force tends to propel it in the opposite direction to the projectile. The same action applies to the explosive engine; the force of the impulse tends to throw the cylinder and bed in the opposite way to that which propels the piston, and to cause it to kick or vibrate, imparting the motion to the carriage in which it is fixed. Now, if two cylinders be tied together with forward ends towards each other and opposite , an equal explosion taking place in each cylinder simultaneously , moving the pistons to meet each other, there will obviously be no kick or reaction of the cylinders and body of engine, because the impulse in one wil! be counteracted by the impulse ol the other, but the impulses must be equal and take place exactly together.
The crest duplex motor.
The straight line duplex gasoline motor, made by the Crest Manufacturing Company, Dorchester, Massachusetts,
This motor is air-cooled by convection ribs on cylinders and valve chests; is crank balanced, and is of the four cycle type, giving a crank impulse at every revolution. The electric ignition is so arranged that a large variation in speed may be made by deferred sparking, and a division of power also may be made by the ignition in one cylinder only, which makes this a very desirable motor for automobile vehicle power.
This company furnish drawings for complete running and power gear to customers preferring to assemble their own vehicles. They furnish the motor, induction coil, battery, vaporizer and muffler, with plans and instructions for light carriages of the runabout style that are suited to the wants of carriage builders or amateurs.
We illustrate the method of attaching the motor in Figs, 111, 112 and 113 for a two-seated tricycle and a buggy or runabout.
The cut of tricycle shown is the easiest and cheapest to construct, and it has but three wheels, has no differential gear, and the frame is of the most simple character. The frame is of steel pipe, inches diameter, 12 gauge; front axle, 1 1/2 inches diameter, 12 guage, reinforced. The under brace is f-inch rod, solid steel. The motor is attached direct to the driving wheel. There are two seats, one behind the other; there being less air resistance on this account.
The duplex 4 horse power will give all the power required for these types of vehicles. The frame work of a carriage is built of steel tubing, i£
inches in diameter, using No. i2 gauge. All joints should be pinned and brazed. Girder construction should be used, as it is well known that this method secures the greatest strength, with the least weight of material, and it is the
cneapest and simplest to manufacture. The frame can be reinforced at any point bv cores of wood. All the diagonal and short braces are J inch steel tubing, 18 gauge. The rear axle should have all bearings of either the roller or ball type of the most approved construction. The differential gear should be so constructed that a band brake can be used. The two main braces are constructed of ash or hickory. The wheels should be either metal or wood rims, steel spokes, 28 inches in diameter, with 2-inch or 2j-inch pneumatic tires. This is the standard wheel for the light automobile , and can now be purchased from various dealers in automobile supplies.
The Crest Manufacturing Company also build a single cylinder, 2 1/4-horse power motor, to be set in a vertical position , and designed on the same lines of construction as the Duplex, that is well adapted for tricycles or very light vehicles.
This is illustrated in Fig. 114. It will be noticed that both the duplex and the single motors have their cylinders , cylinder heads and crank chambers put together with four through bolts, which is a great convenience in separating the parts for cleaning or repairs, as also contributing largely to the lightness of construction so desirable in the motors for carriages.
Vehicle motors of the quick manufacturing company, paterson, n. j.
In Fig. 115 is illustrated the phaeton of this company, and in Fig. 116 the gasoline duplex motor, which is water jacketed , of the four cycle type, placed horizontally, having lugs, as shown, to attach it easily to the frame of the vehicle. The valves are operated by cams on a shaft across the cylinder heads, which is rotated at half speed by a chain from a sprocket wheel on the crank shaft. The spark-igniting device is operated by miter gears on the valve shaft. The two-cylinder motor is of four brake horse power at 700 revolutions per minute.