Improvements in the elements of control seem to have no stay, and the latest production of a steam automobile carriage in which the watchfulness of the driver on the operation of the motive power is almost eliminated, has been brought out by Mr. A. H. Overman, of Chicopee Falls, Mass. It is illustrated in Fig. 274.

In the Victor automobile the fuel may be gasoline or kerosene.

The vertical tubular boiler is made entirely of steel, a seamless shell with heads, and tubes of ample strength. Inspected and insured by the Hartford Steam Boiler Insurance Company.

A pair of vertical is engines enclosed in a case free from dirt and run in an oil bath. A heater utilizes the exhaust for heating the boiler feedwater—the residue exhaust is air condensed.

Water is supplied to the boiler automatically while running by a pump driven from the moving parts; when the vehicle is standing the pressing of a button starts an auxiliary pump for bringing the water up to its proper height. In addition, there is an automatic boiler supply regulator consisting of a differential expansion bar which is composed of brass tubes and a solid steel bar. Any accidental drop in the water level below a minimum safe point, steam displaces the cold water in the regulator and the expansion of the brass tube operates a lever that opens the steam throttle of an auxiliary pump and the proper water level is quickly restored.

In case all the boiler feed devices should become

deranged, a fusible plug at a stated low water level will melt and blow out the fire in the burner.

A sight gauge indicates the quantity of gasoline in the tank at all times, and an automatically operated air pump keeps an even pressure in the tank.

The gauges for steam and air pressure and fuel supply are located in plain view on the dash board, and are electrically illuminated at night by operating a push button on the steering handle.

Another notable point is that the vehicle is self-locking, or ties itself, when the driver leaves his seat. A spring lever beneath the panel of the seat shuts and locks the throttle valve when the driver rises from the seat, and the vehicle cannot be started until the driver is again seated. In operation there are only two things to keep in mind, the steering and the link valve lever on which the hands rest as easily as in driving a horse.

In fact the Victor is conceded to be the advanced automobile of the new century. In all its parts other than above enumerated it is of the most approved construction of the later models.

A kerosene motor carriage.

In Fig. 275 we illustrate a surrey built by the New York Kerosene Oil Engine Company, No. 31 Burling Slip, New York City, who have become owners of the patents of Feodor C. Hirsch for the United States, France, England and Canada. The motors are of the four-cycle compression type, using common kerosene oil as their power fuel.

There is no doubt in the future prospect of kerosene as a safe and available fuel for explosive motors, and the constant improvement being made in details of motors for its use, seems to indicate its growing expanded use for motor vehicle power as well as for launches and yachts. It is the safest and cheapest power fuel available for these purposes. The motor as shown in Fig. 276 is separated from its base for carriage use. It has no special ignition device; the bulb shown on top of the cylinder is connected with the cylinder head and receives the charge of kerosene oil for each impulse and vaporizes it on the instant ready for mixing with the air charge, drawn in by the piston. For starting the motor a lamp or torch is used for from 6 to 8 minutes to heat the vaporizing bulb to the proper temperature for vaporizing the oil, which, with this heat and the heat of

compression at the return stroke of the piston raises the temperature to the explosive point. This gives an impulse to the piston and its repetition continues the action of the motor.

It will be easily understood that by injecting the oil into the hot air a fraction ahead of time before the piston reaches the end of its stroke, the following advantage is obtained :

No condensation of the gas can take place against the cylinder wall, as the piston has swept the whole cylinder, and, nothing but pure air being drawn into the cylinder, which is compressed into the combustion chamber before the oil is injected.

The great field for industrial and marine work is now so broad, and the use of the motor vehicle is beginning to be so thoroughly appreciated, that a simple motor that can be run without an engineer, or expensive battery and ignition apparatus , is sure to be the one wanted, and kerosene from its general use will occupy a prominent place in all these fields, more especially in that of the horseless vehicle.

The lancaster automobile.

In Fig. 277 we illustrate an automobile carriage designed by Mr. James H. Lancaster, 95 Liberty street, New York City. It is of the explosive motor power class of the phaeton style, with a vis-a-vis fore seat.

Mr. Lancaster has brought together in the design of this carriage and its motive power the best up-to-date mechanical devices for economy and efficiency for a compact and speedy vehicle.

By one lever only, the ingenious and efficient speed-gearing yields at will to any of the four varying rates of forward speeds and one backward, and yet they merge impercepti

bly from the slowest to the highest limit desired. All lubrication is entirely automatic. Not only the carriage but the entire mechanism is carried on springs, thus avoiding jarring and injury to it. This increases its durability, and also gives, greater comfort to the riders.

A novel and perfect gasoline and air mixer effects great economy in fuel and ease of control. It is not effected by atmospheric changes and its means of regulation is simple and accurate. The rear axle being in one piece, greater strength and rigidity is ensured. Starting the " Lancamobile " motor is easily and instantly effected without the driver leaving the seat.

The " Lancamobile " steering and speed mechanism can be controlled by a child, and the absence of vibration, noise and smell makes gasoline now available without its many previous disadvantages. Speeds range from three miles to thirty per hour. The construction of frame and mechanism is such that almost any style of body can be attached to it.

An experimental shop.

In Fig. 278 we illustrate a model gasoline motor of a halfhorse power made in " The Franklin Model Shop " of Parsell & Weed, i29 and i31 West 31st Street, New York City. The motor parts are made on a wrought iron frame suitable for attaching to a light vehicle. The details of this motor are fully described and illustrated, with the tools and methods of construction for amateur instruction, in their book on " Gas Engine Construction."

Messrs. Parsell & Weed have had considerable experience in gas and gasoline engine construction, and in their Franklin Model Shop they have an establishment which is well equipped with the best modern machine tools, and, with a corps of intelligent and experienced workmen, they are prepared to do all kinds of fine work, models, and for building automobile engine parts, vaporizers, etc., to order from inventor's own designs. Their drafting department is also available for the production of working drawings from customer 's sketches.

A combined motor auto-truck.

In Fig. 279 we illustrate a novel combination of a gasoline and an air motor truck, built by L. J. Wing, 95 Liberty Street, New York City.

The initial power in this system is a gasoline double-cylinder motor; very compact, reliable, and of large power for heavy work. This motor has the outer end of each cylinder arranged as an air-compressor. This gives an abundance of compressed air for starting the motor and for working air brakes—similar to steam engines, for blowing a whistle or as auxiliary power for climbing grades, starting heavy loads, etc.

As shown in the cut, the power is attached to the front wheels through a jackshaft having compensating gears. With this arrangement of the parts the driver is enabled to turn the vehicle at right angles for turning in narrow streets, while at the same time he has the full strength of the common wagon.

The power plant can be attached to any truck or wagon by removing the front wheels, axle and lower half of fifthwheel and substituting the power plant. Then by putting on the storage tanks, air-brakes, etc., the old horse truck becomes a practical and reliable auto-truck, capable of doing a greater amount of transporting at less cost than by horses and occupying but one-half the room on the street. It docs not soil the street as the horse does, and never gets tired or sick.

The arrangement for steering, stopping and starting are all made very strong, but these operations are done mechanically and require but little power on the part of the "Moteer," in fact, this wagon has less labor for the operator than the small electric carriages. The exhaust has been arranged so as to remove the objectionable feature of the gas engine.

Mr. Wing has had many 3 ears' experience in machinery, and was the first one in the East to make the gas engine a success as a marine power.

Automatic igniter for steam vehicle burner.

For purposes of convenience, as well as economy, the most successful types of steam vehicle are constructed with a boiler heated by a gas flame, such being produced by employing the heat of the boiler itself to vaporize liquid gasoline. In starting the boiler, when cold, some portion of the fuel supply pipe is first heated, and when it has reached the required temperature the supply of liquid gasoline under air pressure is turned on, and becomes vaporized or turned into a gas in passing through the heated pipe; it issues through the burner under the boiler, where it may be ignited. For purpose of economy, in both fuel and water (as well as preventing over or dangerous pressure) when stops are made along the road, various automatic devices have been invented and applied to this type of automobile, by which the gas supply is diminished, or even cut down to a taper or pilot flame. As, however, the bottom of the burner is pierced with many holes in order to supply air to the burning gas, sudden gusts of wind will frequently extinguish the flame when so turned down, and, indeed, it often occurs that the fire when turned on to its fullest extent, with the vehicle under way on the road, will be suddenly blown out. In the latter case, it is necessary to stop the vehicle and relight the fire.

In order to overcome this annoying disadvantage, an electric re-igniting device has been devised and put upon the market by the A. L. Bogart Company, of i23 Liberty Street, New York City, which is particularly simple in construction , number of parts and method of applying. It consists of a spark-producing device contained in a cylindrical metal case, five inches long and three inches in diameter. Projecting from the upper side of this case is a stem surmounted by platinum sparking points, one of which is automatically movable. This instrument, known as the igniter, is suspended by means of an iron brace screwed fast to the bottom of the vehicle in such manner that the sparking points pass up through one of the air tubes in the bottom of the burner and project within the same just above its upper surface . Figs. 280 and 28i represent the igniter as attached to

the steam vehicle known as the Locomobile, the first being a side and the second an end view of the same; portions of the framework are represented as being broken away in order to show the igniter plainly. Fig. 282 is a diagram of the igniter and its electrical connections, on a larger scale;

the dotted lines between the igniter, button and battery box indicate the wires connecting the same. The push button is usually placed at the right hand side of the driver, preferably near the starting lever. Two cells of dry battery are contained in a neat cylindrical case, three inches in diameter and fifteen inches long, which is provided with a cover and may be placed in a tool tray, under the foot board. The connecting cord as supplied by the manufacturers is a double strand, twisted together, having three ends, one to be attached to the igniter, one to the button, and the other to screw posts in the battery box.

In operating this arrangement, the fuel having been turned on, it is only necessary to push the button, when a lighting spark will be produced inside of the fire box. This can be done either while seated in the wagon or standing outside of it. The heat remaining in the boiler after putting out the fire is sufficient to vaporize the fuel so as to permit re-igniting any time from one and a half to two hours after extinguishment.

Vehicle motors of the maltby automobile and motor company.

The Maltby Company, who are located at No. 12 Clinton Street, Brooklyn Borough, New York City, furnish gasoline motors with water-jacketed and rib-cooled cylinders for bicycles, tricycles, carriages and launches. Fig. 283 represents a water-jacketed, two-cycle launch engine of three horse power,—height, 22 inches; floor space. 20 x 12 inches.

This style of motor is furnished in sizes of 1 1/2, 3, 5, 6 and i0 horse power. The carriage motors are of the four-cycle compression type, with ribs for air cooling, and sizes of one and two horse power with single cylinders and of lour horse power with double cylinders and a single crank case. All their motors are designed on the most approved principles of construction for reliability, and are provided with a peculiar electric ignition device that varies the time of sparking. In Fig. 284 is illustrated the ribbed and air-cooled motor of the carriage type.

When placed in a carriage, or on a tricycle, the feet shown in the cut are replaced by brackets direct to the vehicle frame. The crank case is made of aluminum, which contributes to the lightness of the motor, which for two horse power only weighs 53 pounds.

In Fig. 285 is shown some of the principal parts of the carriage motor. The crank case, uncovered, with the reducing gear, cam and guide for operating the exhaust valve. The two bolts that hold the motor parts together, the piston, cylinder, and cylinder head, which is also ribbed, and the sparking push rod, which operates by contact with the

piston. The bicycle motor of one horse power is made on the same lines as above, and weighs but 25 pounds.

The langmuir tires.

This tire possesses certain features which are not embraced in other makes of solid rubber tires. It has been the theory of inventors of solid rubber carriage tires that it was essential to have the rubber fill the channel before the load was put on, and this feature has been carried out in all tires that have come to our notice, with the exception of "Langmuir's," and the inventor of this tire seems to have conceived the idea that, in order to make a successful tire, it

was necessary to make a radical departure from the old forms and methods of applying the tire, and we observe that he has made his tire so that there is a "V-shaped" space between the rubber and the flanges, and, in talking with the inventor, we learn that this is the primary base of their claims, and being of this shape they contend that they had a very resilient rubber tire, due to the fact that the entire weight of the vehicle comes on the base of the channel, and, as the rubber compresses laterally when under load, it fills the channel, and in this way the entire amount of rubber in the tire is brought into use, whereas, with the tires that fill the channel before the load is applied, there is quite a percentage of rubber that is not in use, for the reason that before the load is put on it fills the channel; consequently, being encased within the sides of the flanges, that portion which is not encased spreads out over the sides of the channel , so that a person is riding only on the amount of rubber above the sides of the channel, whereas in the " Langmuir" the entire amount of rubber is brought into service.

In applying the " Langmuir" tire no superfluous rubber is used, as the tire is cut the same length as the circumference of the wheel, plus three times the depth of the rubber, using the same principle as applied in cutting iron or steel channels , and by so doing the matter of compression is eliminated , the results being that the tire will not open at the joint, will not break at the wire holes or cut at the base, and the harmful tendency of creeping is eliminated. The reason for creeping is on account of compression that is necessarv to be used to keep the tires from opening at the joint. The tires are manufactured from J- inch to 3 inches in diameter , and, although a comparatively new article in the field, a great many of them are in use and have given satisfaction in every instance.

These tires are manufactured by the Revere Rubber Co., 59 Reade Street, New York.

Automobile tires.

We illustrate, in Figs. 288 and 289, a lately-patented tire of novel construction, having much of the elastic properties of the pneumatic tire, without its troubles.

In Fig. 288 is shown a section of the tire for light vehicles. The open central space gives the tire great elasticity, and the form of its fastenings allows of a compressive hold of the tire on the wheel, instead of a tension or pull of the tire around the wheel, as with other methods of fastening. The principle of compression is a saving one on the wear and tear of the tire. A cut, or puncture, has no disposition to gap and extend the damage by the stretched condition of a tire; but, on the other hand, closes up and presses together by the longitudinal compression in this method of tire mounting.

If a tire becomes seriously cut or damaged from accident, a piece may be cut out and a new piece put in, thus saving the entire loss of a tire. This tire does not creep.

The central T-shaped band is fastened to a band tire, or directly on the felloes by bolts or pins. The outside grooved bands are bolted to the felloes by through bolts, making a firmly stayed and strong wheel. The rubber tires are moulded in rings for set sizes, or in straight lengths suitable for any size wheel, or for repairs.

In Fig. 289 is shown the solid tire for heavy vehicles, made upon and subject to the same general principles of construe tion as the first named, but with a capacity for carrying much heavier loads.

Their durability is equal to the wear of the solid rubber down to the edges of the grooved supporting bands. They cannot be jerked off the wheel in railway ruts. They are designated as the "compressed double-locked

automobile tire," and are made by Dewcs & Whiting, No. 243 Centre Street, New York City.

Automobile lamps.

In Figs. 290 and 29i we illustrate a kerosene automobile lamp, made by the R. E. Dietz Company, 60 Laight Street, New York City. The need for a lamp that will not jar or blow out under any conditions of road travel has been met by the Dietz Company, who have produced a lamp with a strong light, with chimney draft, that is reliable for automobile service, and will burn 24 hours with one filling. It burns with a clear white flame of 20 candle power, and lights up the road for a distance of 200 feet or more.

The lamp is compact and handsome in design, resembling, in a measure, the locomotive headlight, and is provided with an internal conical reflector of a peculiar form, which concentrates and focalizes the entire volume of light and throws it directly ahead.

The front of the lamp consists of a beveled, moulded lens made from the best quality of lead glass, set in a flaring front door.

At the back is set a small lens of ruby glass, by means of which, when the lamp is in position at the side of the dash, a brilliant point of crimson light is seen from the rear. The reflector is made of rolled silver-plated copper. The flaring front is made of a highly polished non-tarnishing white metal.

The lamp embodies in its construction the well-known .ubular principle; the sides being double form an air chamber , the cold air being drawn into the outer chamber at the top descends to the burner, and the hot air and products of combustion escape through the central passage. The operation of the lamp can be readily seen by Fig. 29i, the arrows showing the circulation of the air, and, as all the air that feeds the flame, or goes to the burner, passes through these chambers, no wind affects its burning. By means of this circulation fresh air is continually supplied to the burner, and a perfect combustion is the result; the lamp emitting a clear white flame devoid of smoke or odor, and one that the jarring incident to rough roads will not extinguish .

In Fig. 292 we illustrate a ball separating device made by the Sartus Ball Bearing Company, 6i8 Broadway, New York City.

The use of a ball retainer and separator in any kind of machine, running on ball bearings, has been proved, by severe and frequent tests, that friction in bearings is thereby reduced to a minimum, and that retainers and separators give the easiest running ball bearings . It is a known fact that the rolling ball,

even under great pressure, produces very little friction, and it is friction alone that causes wear. As the ordinary bearings in cycles, without exception, wear out in a comparatively short time, it proves, in the most positive manner, that the balls in these bearings, during use, do not always roll freely, but necessarily slide at times. Sliding of the balls has been proven by experiments.

The only proper way to test friction in bearings, is to put a weight of say 200 pounds on the wheel running on ball bearings, and revolve it, The spinning of a suspended wheel does not speak for the excellence of its bearings, but the revolving of the same under pressure, which it also undergoes as a part of a cycle or vehicle, with its driver, only determines the amount of friction generated. The arrangement, Fig. 293, illustrates a simple device for testing the amount of friction in ball bearings, and to better

explain said device, the parts of the illustration are marked with letters as follows : A A is a bicycle hub on its fork, E. B is a belt running under the hub and over a pulley fastened to a shaft. E is a fork slightly changed to accommodate this method of illustration, but answering the purpose of the ordinary fork in a bicycle.

F is a 200-pound weight attached to the lower end of fork, E, and corresponds in this illustration to a rider on a bicycle.

From the foregoing it will be readily understood that when shaft, D, and pulley, C, revolve, hub, A, will also rotate on its bearings, and, as it is under the pressure of a 200-pound weight, it revolves under the ordinary conditions of bicycle riding. As it is an accepted fact that friction will always cause more or less heat, it must be granted that the greater the friction the more heat; consequently, as an additional test, assume the wheel to travel at 300 miles an hour, the amount of friction of the loose ball bearings could readily be ascertained by the amount of heat shown by the cones, cups and loose balls. Trials of long runs of cycle hubs in this kind of test has shown the decided value of the Sartus ball retainer.

Automobile tire pcmps.

Something which every owner of an automobile needs is a tire pump. Probably the best stationary hand lever pump is made by the Gleason-Peters Air Pump Company, 40 West Houston Street, New York. It is made from

malleable iron, can be operated by hand, is attached to a fixed support and possesses all the advantages of that class of pump known to the trade as lever pumps. Another important advantage is that whether portably held in the hand or affixed to a support, the best possible results are attained, as the leverage on the piston rod increases as the resistance on the piston increases, thereby securing the powerful leverage of the well-known "toggle-joint" principle as the piston finishes its stroke.

This pump is particularly adapted to automobiles, and is said to be the only hand pump that will give a pressure of 400 pounds to the square inch. This company also makes power pumps for manufacturers of automobiles.

The illustration, Fig. 294, represents the pump on a slotted stand, which also serves as a bicycle holder. In Fig. 295 is illustrated the pump detached from the stand and operated in the hands like a common bellows. The direct hand pump, Fig. 296, is made from heavy

seamless brass tubing and has malleable iron base, ball check valve and spade handle . This is a very powerful foot pump and is light in weight. All joints and connections are soldered, and the pump is designed to be carried about in the vehicle , and will make a pressure of over 250 pounds per square inch.

The automobile bell.

One of the most important attachments to the horseless vehicles, automobile or motor cycle, is the sweet-toned signal of alarm. It should be strong and penetrating , as well as quick in action.

The "Ideal bell" is constructed on an entirely new principle, which makes it suitable to be operated with electric light current as well as battery current. All the works are included under the gong, making a very attractive bell. (In the new construction the bell is also made dust and water proof.) It also gives a much stronger ring than the old style; this is accomplished by means of the circuit breaker. In all vibrating bells made heretofore the circuit is always broken before the armature comes in contact with the magnet, losing thereby the strongest part of the magnet's attraction , but in this one the armature has to come in contact

before the current is broken, which makes the hammer give a very strong blow to the bell. We illustrate the details of this bell in Figs. 297, 298 and 299, the first showing the outside and its complete closure from dust and water, and the latter the details of the internal mechanism, which is of more than ordinary interest. It will be noticed that the current comes through binding

post, i6, then to the magnet wire at i8, then out at i9 to insulated bracket, 20, which holds the hammer lever, i0, then through contact, i3, to contact, i4, on armature bar, 6, so that when the armature bar, 5, is attracted and comes in contact with the magnet the momentum of the lever hammer breaks the circuit, and when the hammer rebounds the contact is again made, causing it to keep on vibrating as long as the circuit is closed. It will be noticed that by the manner in which the armature and hammer is pivoted,

there is a good rubbing contact, making it unnecessary to use platinum, although silver is used, so that when the bell is not used for a long time it will not corrode. These bells are manufactured by David Rousseau, 310 Mott Avenue, New York City.

Lubricants for automobiles.

The want of a lubricant for bearings and chains of motor carriages and motor cycles that does not choke up journal boxes and chains with graphite, which cannot be cleaned off or even touched with hands without imparting the blacking nuisance, has brought out a new compound paste that is free from objections and easily cleaned from bearings or chains. It is free from mineral or gummy substances, and is especially adapted to the requirements of ball bearings. It is made by Wm. P. Miller's Sons, i00 Greenpoint Avenue, Borough of Brooklyn, New York City.

Brass and copper goods.

Manufacturers of automobiles and amateurs will be interested in knowing where they can secure a superior quality of seamless drawn copper tubes, ^ inch to i6 inches diameter , of any thickness required. The U. T. Hungerford Brass and Copper Co., New York City, have made a specialty of seamless drawn copper tubes for boiler tubes, and the size that is generally used by manufacturers of automobiles who are now placing their machines on the market measures 1/2 inch outside diameter by No. 2i Stubs gauge, or 1/32 inch thick, cut in lengths to suit the size of the boiler. These tubes are finished especially to give the greatest possible strength with the least possible weight. The extra large sizes of tubing, from i3 inches to i6 inches, are used for the shell of the boiler, and are made in thicknesses from 1/16 inch up to 1/2 inch, according to the requirements of the case. Seamless drawn brass and copper tubes are also used in vehicles driven by gasoline motors for conducting pipes, connections, etc., and anything in this line can be procured from the above mentioned concern.

They carry a full line of sheet copper, sheet brass, rods, wire, etc., and have just issued a stock catalogue showing full line carried in their New York warehouse, No. i2 Worth Street, which we believe will be invaluable to builders of automobiles, and will be sent to anyone on application.

The above company also manufactures an automobile oiler, as illustrated in Fig. 301. The spout is so arranged as to be easily drawn out of the oil well, extending 3^ inches beyond it, thus rendering it possible to reach any part of the automobile motor or running gear. To close the oiler the spout is pushed back over a rod attached to the spout, acting as a valve, thus preventing the escape of oil. As a precaution against leakage the screw head is packed solid with leather washers, making it absolutely impossible for the oil to pass through it.

Automobile gearing and its manufacture.

One of the essential elements in automobile construction is a smooth running gear. This can only be obtained with perfect tools for cutting the teeth of the gear wheels and pinions, so that they will run together without noise or jar. With this in view, we illustrate, in Figs. 302 and 303, a gear cuttingmachine and radial gang cutters made by Gould & Eberhardt , Newark, N. J. The system of gang cutting the teeth of gear wheels is one

of the modern inovations in the saving of time in the operation of mechanical work. Messrs. Gould & Eberhardt not only build the machinery, but are prepared to cut any kind of gearing for experimenters or builders of automobile motors and speed gears.

The automobile machine shop.

The rapid advance in the manufacture of horseless vehicles, automobiles, and motor cycles has caused to be made special machinery of precision for finishing the parts of their motive power and running gear.

We illustrate three of the most interesting machines of this class in Figs. 304, 305 and 306, as made by the Garvin Machine Co., Spring and Varick Streets, New York City. The Universal milling machine embodies the most advanced design of this class of tool, and is advantageously adapted for cutting automobile gears, pinions, sprocket wheels, and for milling the brackets, levers, and other surface work. It is also adapted for making the parts required for the construction of horseless carriages. Power feeds are provided in all directions, and all of these feeds are started and stopped by one hand lever at the front of the knee.

Special attention is directed to the feed mechanism. The change gear box located inside the column affords eighteen changes of feed, ranging from .003 to 1/4 inch advance per revolution of spindle, and any desired feed is instantly obtained by simply turning the handle to correspond to the number on the index disk.

All of these changes are available for all of the feeds, in any direction, and in all positions. A new feature of this machine is a stationary elevating screw which is provided with a rotating nut, so that when the machines are placed on cement floors or in fireproof buildings no hole will be required. The elevating nut is fitted with a ball end thrust, giving it a very easy movement .

Micrometer dials, graduated in thousandths, are provided on all the adjustments. The turret screw machine is a modern machine tool especially designed for manufacturing the parts of automobiles and motor cycles, such as the bearings, gears, boxes, and other parts required to be bored, turned, faced, and threaded.

It has a very large capacity automatic wire feed mechanism for making the ball-bearing cups and cones from the bar. The machine has ample power for the heaviest kind of work. The regular friction-geared spindle is back-geared at a ratio of 8 to i. In addition to this, the face plate is also back-geared at a ratio of 14 to 1.

The turret has large hexagonal faces, so that universal The gap in the bed enables large gear and sprocket wheels to be turned, and the large combination oil pan and cabinet base provide means for saving and separating the oil from the chips.

The automatic pump furnishes a copious supply of lubricant to the cutting tools when required. The double turret screw machine is a form of machine

brought out to meet the demands required in the construction of horseless carriages. It is particularly adapted for making pieces that require operation on both ends, such as wheel hubs, shells, change gear boxes, and similar work. The machine is so arranged that the tools can be in operation on both ends of the piece simultaneously, thus saving a large amount of time; also enabling the piece to be completed at one setting, and insuring both ends of the work being finished in tne same concentric plane.

The work being handled only once, all loss of time and inaccuracies due to rehandling are avoided. The center chuck is driven by gearing, and revolves in anti-friction bearings thoroughly protected from chips and dirt. The turrets are independent of each other, and are each provided with pan, and also power feed, with ample changes for the different classes of work.

These machines are built in several sizes to cover the range of work required on small motor cycles, automobiles, and trucks.

Motors and vehicles of the hasbrouck motor company.

The Hasbrouck Motor Co., whose factory is at Piermont, N. Y., and office at No. 20 Nassau Street, New York Cityj are builders of gasoline motors and automobile carriages, trucks and delivery wagons, in connection with their business of building launches and yachts with gasoline motive power.

Their motor is in line with the latest and best design of one, two, four, six, eight, and ten horse power for immediate delivery, and higher powers to order. The company are now building a modified Stanhope phaeton, Fig. 307, to carry two persons, with top and storm curtains—a complete and thoroughly up-to-date touring carriage , fitted with a six horse power gasoline motor that is absolutely odorless, and in which the vibration usual in gasoline motor vehicles has been entirely eliminated.

The economy in fuel is the best that has yet been obtained, the motor requiring but one-tenth of a gallon of gasoline per horse power per hour.

Their automobile carriage can be operated by any intelligent person, and is under perfect control in all its movements . Its speed is gauged from one mile per hour to as fast as one may care to go, and the power is sufficient to climb a grade of 20 per cent. at from three to six miles per hour. In Fig. 308 is illustrated the Hasbrouck motor.

A gasoline vehicle motor.

In Fig. 309 we illustrate a compact and well made motor with air-cooled cylinder, made by the Smith Motor Co., 56 Morris and Essex Railroad Avenue, Newark, N. J. These motors are a specialty for automobile vehicles and tricycles; they are of the four cycle type with electric ignition and vaporizing device of the most approved pattern.

Three sizes are now in course of manufacture: if horse power motor that weighs 40 pounds, as shown in the cut, Fig. 309; a three horse power motor, same pattern, weighing 85 pounds, and a six horse power motor, weighing ii0 pounds.

The cylinder, cylinder head and valve chamber are enclosed in a system of air-cooling ribs, that are fully equal to controlling the temperature and contribute to the neat appearance of the motor. The vaporizing device is attached to the top of the valve chamber, forming a fixed part of the motor.

By an arrangement of the internal passages in the cylinder , the products of combustion are swept clean from the cylinder after each impulse stroke and the regulation of speed is made both by variable charge and delayed electric sparks, all controllable by the operator.

Combined kerosene oil engine and air compressor.

In Fig. 310, we illustrate a novelty in an air compressor operated by kerosene oil. The application of the explosive motur to the compression of air for all purposes is of recent date, and will eventu

ally become of great importance as an easily installed and economical method of obtaining compressed air for raising water by the Merrill system, but also to furnish air under pressure for any purpose.

The engine is of the vertical four-cycle compression type, having an isolated retort at the side of cylinder, wherein vaporization and ignition are automatically effected, without the aid of electric batteries, igniters, or hot tubes. Kerosene is contained in the base of engine and is supplied by a pump to an induction valve on top of retort, having an induction tube leading therefrom to the bottom of retort, through which the kerosene is admitted at the proper time.

During the first, or intake stroke of piston, air only is drawn into the cylinder, and kerosene into bottom of retort, wherein it is immediately vaporized. The retort is so proportioned that the kerosene vapor will not more than fill the same under any condition, thereby preventing the vapor from passing into the cylinder and condensing against the water-jacketed walls, which would cause great waste and serious fouling.

Upon the return, or compression stroke, the air in cylinder is forced into the vapor in retort, producing a combustible mixture which very readily ignites from the heated walls of retort, as soon as the piston ends the compression stroke.

The volume of air in the cylinder is always considerably in excess of that required by the vapor in the retort to form a combustible mixture; perfect combustion and economy in fuel consumption is thus obtained.

The kerosene is supplied to the retort against no pressure , but is largely assisted by the suction of piston, thereby relieving the pump of excessive duty. The pump is operated by a variable eccentric disc controlled by a fly-wheel governor, which mechanism supplies the kerosene in direct proportion to the load.

The governor also insures a positive delivery of kerosene. If the pump fails to deliver a proper quantity, the resulting decrease of power and speed is immediately accompanied by the action of governor, which increases the stroke of pump, making up the deficiency and instantly effecting the recovery to normal speed. This result would not be obtainable if the pump had a fixed stroke.

By this arrangement no adjustments of the air or kerosene supply (which might be improperly handled by unskilled persons) are required.

The successive combustion of variable charges within the retort at the proper time, tends to keep the retort more uniformly heated, than if the charges were occasionally omitted; the speed of the engine is also more regular. In fact, the regulation and the variable pressure effect within the cylinder of this engine is analogous to the operation of an automatic cut-off steam engine.

Special kerosene engine air compressor and generator units of direct connected types will be built, by which the owner of a country place can light his residence, supply it with water, and charge his electric automobile or launch. The air compressor combination may also be used by manufacturers or at central stations for inflating automobile tires.

For automobiles and launches, multiple cylinder engines of modified designs to meet existing conditions will be built, together with a full line of pneumatic pumping machinery, by the Merrill Pneumatic Pump Co., 141 Broadway, New York.

Drop forgings for the auto-builder.

It pleases us to become a class of clearing-house for the introduction of automobile parts. When these parts have particular merit, are the product of careful designers and practiced manufacturing methods, we may claim for them more than common attention.

Iron your vehicle for safety and wear first; then evolve graceful form combinations. We picture steering front axle parts, drop forged from stiff, strong steel. Both the pivot arm and yoked bed embody artistic outline, are forged to require the minimum of machine finishing, and must find favor among builders of first-class horseless carriages, etc.

Valve stem and connecting rod end forgings will interest the auto-engine builder. J. H. Williams & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., are about to issue a catalogue describing these, with steering axle, crank shaft, and other stock drop forgings. The entire book will be interesting. The endeavor to excel has so marked the efforts of this well established concern that scant opportunity to further commend is created. CONTINUOUS CURRENT VOLT-AMMETER For Testing Storage and Primary Batteries. To keep a storage battery in good condition and to prevent break-downs as well as expensive repairs, each cell should be tested from time to time by a low reading voltmeter capable of indicating tenths of volts.

In this way, cells which are not in good condition can be detected by their voltage being lower than the others, and attended to at once, before the trouble has become so serious as to necessitate expensive repairs.

The users of gasoline vehicles with sparking devices operated by storage batteries, will also find a low reading volt-meter invaluable, as such an instrument will indicate the fall in the voltage which occurs as the battery approaches exhaustion. This will enable one to tell when the battery should be re-charged. When a sparking device is operated by a primary battery, tests with a low reading volt and ammeter will enable weak cells to be detected and replaced.

This instrument has three scales, reading as follows: from o to 3 volts in tenths, o to 30 volts in units, and o to i0 amperes in fourths. Thus the readings of three instruments are combined in one, adapting it perfectly to battery testing. The division of the 3-volt scale are tenths of a volt, making the instrument applicable to testing storage batteries. The different readings are obtained by inserting a plug in the proper one of three marked holes in the end of the instrument. In this way the various readings are easily and quickly made, as no connections have to be altered at the binding posts.

These volt-ammeters are of the permanent magnet type, and have a high electrical resistance. Louis M. Pignolet, manufacturer, 78 Cortlandt Street, New York.

Tempered copper castings.

For electrical work, the want of perfectly pure copper castings is much felt, and manv inquiries have been made as to where pure copper and copper tempered with a small percentage of alloy or with phosphorous to an amount that will make it the best metal for electrical conductivity, and yet hard enough for the commutators of dynamos and electric motors, can be obtained.

Phosphor-copper and phosphor-copper alloys are largely coming into use for antifriction purposes, and for special parts in electrical work, where ductility, conductivity, and hardness are required, and can now be readily obtained.

There are two or three well-known old-established firms in this country now manufacturing copper castings, which, upon being analyzed, show themselves purer than commercial pig copper, as they subject the copper to a special refining process before it is cast.

These firms furnish tempered copper castings absolutely free from blowholes, and their castings upon examination are found to be stronger and tougher than ordinary pig copper, the crystals showing a harmonious union and entirely alike. They can be forged at certain heats and are very serviceable for antifriction purposes. Tempered copper castings are manufactured by E. A. Williams & Son, 105 Plymouth Street, Jersey City, N. J.

An auto-cycle chemical exgine.

The growth of invention of apparatus for "coping" with fire goes steadily on. With it has come the invention of the Dolfini Auto-Cycle Chemical Fire Engine.

In its construction it is made to resemble a double tandem bicycle, thus having four wheels and saddles for four riders; the application of each rider's propelling power is so placed that it makes such propulsion far easier than riding an ordinary bicycle; the inventor also places a motor on the engine which drives it at the maximum speed of 30 miles an hour, or on an average of 20 miles in the same time. The inventor in the construction of this motor has aimed at perfection and has used nothing but the highest grade of workmanship, regardless of expense; he has used the best carbon steel forgings, special iron and best quality of phosphor-bronze being used. It has simplicity, cleanliness and is almost noiseless in operation, while starting and regulating is easy and reliable. The electric ignition is perfect. The exhaust is carried off without odor; no flame is used, and the motor can be started instantly. So if the men fail, the motor can be depended upon. This harmonious combination of the two best known inventions of this present time, viz.: the bicycle and the automobile, was given the name Auto-Cycle Chemical Engine. The tank contains two substances, namely, an acid and sodium carbonate in water, which when brought into intimate mixture develop a gas called carbon dioxide, in the presence of which combustion is impossible. The pressure is developed by the gas and the solution is sent with great force to the desired location of the fire. They are built by A. VV. Dolfini & Co., 332 Classon Avenue, Brooklyn.

The upton transmission gear.

This transmission is especially designed to meet the requirements for connecting the engine (gasoline or steam) to the rear axle of the carriage, and while very neat and compact in form, is mechanically correct, giving a strong and efficient gearing that will positively do the work with very little appreciable wear. It is illustrated in Fig. 314. From its external appearance it will be readily noted that the inner mechanism consists of a train or trains of spur gearing, and this in fact, is the case.

In the operation three band brakes and a friction clutch perform the different functions. By compressing the brake on the middle ring, the slow speed ahead is obtained. Throwing in the clutch at the right gives the fast speed. A brake applied to the single disk furnishes an emergency brake, should the ordinary brake fail to operate. A reverse movement to the sprocket is obtained by applying a brake to the left hand disk.

The positive performance of its different movements is, with this gearing, the object sought and obtained. This transmission gear is made by the Upton Machine Co., No. 17 State Street, New York.

A moisture-proof veneer for vehicle bodies.

Nothing adds so much to the finish and accepted appearance of a park carriage, a phaeton, or Victoria, as the application of natural wood surface to the panels or the dashboard , or of any part in which the wood grain can be developed with artistic effect. Heretofore veneering has not been successful because moisture from exposure and washing soon deteriorated and separated it from its backing.

The difficulty has been obviated in a method of backing veneers of all the fancy woods by a special waterproof glue that resists the action of the weather and of washing processes , and brings veneered work to the front for ornamenting our finest carriages and automobile vehicles. This new phase in carriage building has been brought out by The Seguine-Axford Veneer Co., Jersey City, N. J., to whom we advise builders of automobiles to address for full information . The same company also manufactures automobile bodies to order.

The ball bearing question.

In Fig. 315 we illustrate a.ball bearing steering knuckle, and in Fig. 316 a wire wheel hub on the Baker ball bearing axle, with the steering knuckle also with ball bearings. Manufactured by the United States Ball Bearing Co., Townsend Building, Broadway and Twenty-fifth Street, New York City.

In this age of horseless vehicles the question of ball bearings is one of great value, not only to the builders, but to t the users of such vehicles.

No one doubts the value of a properly made and constructed ball bearing axle. Everybody recognizes that ball bearings greatly reduce the friction; greatly relieve one who owns or operates vehicles of much annoyance and trouble ; they greatly relieve horses from excessive draught; greatly curtail the expense of vehicles if propelled by either electricity, gasoline, or steam; greatly add to the riding comforts of a vehicle, and prolong the life of the same. It has remained, and to a certain extent still remains, for those who have gone into the question for the purpose and with the determination of learning just how a ball bearing axle should be made, and to ascertain what are the best mechanical principles upon which the same should be constructed in order to give to it antifriction qualities, durability, and sim

plicity, to demonstrate that ball bearing axles are not only as practical on wagons designed and built for heavy weights as on vehicles for light weights, but productive of much greater results.

A ball bearing axle in which the cones and races are not ground and in which the balls are not absolutely uniform in roundness cannot be properly called an antifriction bearing. To be antifriction, these parts must be so smooth as to produce the least possible resistance. Grinding is the only process by which such surfaces can be obtained.

Ball bearing axles which have hollow or grooved cones and hollow or grooved races (sometimes called ball cups) are much more objectionable than many imagine. Grooved cones and cups have a construction which prevents perfect rolling with the balls; the balls slip or slide over such grooved surfaces and the result is sliding friction. One would scarcely believe that there is so much less friction in a ball bearing with straight, slanting cones and right-angled races, or what is termed a three-point bearing, than there is in a ball bearing with grooved cones and cups. With the balls confined upon straight slanting cones and in cups whose walls are at right angles to each other, the

balls touch at three points, each point being equidistant from the axis of the balls. In the three-point bearing the balls revolve at all times with the greatest facility, and sliding friction is eliminated.

It seems apparent that there is a great deal more friction in roller bearings and round grooved and annular grooved ball bearings than there is in a three-point ball bearing with straight slanting cones and cups with right angle walls.

Friction is a force which tells in mechanisms as well as in the economies of business. The object of any antifriction axle is to eliminate this friction as far as it is possible, and one which fails to do this, whether it be ball or roller bearing , cannot properly be styled an antifriction bearing.

Men, when they use horses—while the horse should be considered just as much, if not more, than the mere question of dollars and cents—do not think or realize how much it is costing them to operate a vehicle without a properly constructed and made antifriction axle. But when they substitute either gasoline, electricity, or steam power for the horse, and they have to pay for every bit of power used to propel the vehicle, they will soon take notice of the force of friction in connection with their vehicle. When a man realizes that it is going to cost him more to propel his vehicle which has plain, ordinary axles, or an improperly constructed ball bearing or roller, bearing axle, than it will if it had a properly constructed ball bearing axle, he is not going to hesitate as to which one of the vehicles he purchases.