Gazoline motor carriges and vehicles
Gasoline motor carriages and heavy vehicles.
The more substantial automobile vehicles for pleasure and park riding, for touring and for heavy traffic—the coach, delivery wagon, the omnibus and the truck—are fast taking a leading place in our larger cities, and, as in England and on the continent, their expanding usefulness is noticeable throughout the country. The doctor, in either city or country , can now step into his buggy, ready harnessed, and be off; can make his round of calls in the quickest time, and does not even mind a long drive that would jade a horse. The fire chief reaches his call in less time than ever before. The ambulance is always ready for the start, and makes quick time on its call. The cab, omnibus and truck can now stand upon the street with no one to watch the horses. The stand is unfouled, and cleanliness follows their tracks. Each of the kinds of motive power is cleanly in its habits, and as each has its special radius of power and endurance, their progressive march of usefulness will go on and find their great calling as sure as has been the progress of our railways. Good roads must lead the way—the rest will soon follow.
Horseless vehicles will become the feeders to our railway systems, and thus the network of communication will become complete, and the old horse stages will be but a memory of the past.
Breaking away from our transient reverie and getting back to solid facts, we sketch the French park wagon tor four passengers, with a rear elevated seat for a driver. The motor is placed beneath the driver's floor, and the middle seat turns over as shown by the dotted lines, for examination of the motor and speed gear. A panel also can be opened under the driver's seat to give a full view of the operating mechanism. These vehicles are largely in use in
France for riding parties, and will soon be seen and appreciated in the United States.
The fetter gasoline carriage.
An English design of a motor carriage plan and driving gear is illustrated in Fig. 154, and the gasoline motor in Fig. i55. The motor is placed over the driving axle. From the crank shaft a sprocket wheel and chain transmits the power to a friction sprocket, E', running loose on the counter shaft and pressed by the double friction disks, F, F, by the operation of a push rod through the hollow counter shaft and bell crank lever, W, terminating in a handle at the right of the carriage seat.
A second handle, M, changes the speed by moving the clutch to one or the other of the sprocket wheels, N and K. A brake. V, V, is operated by a cross shaft and a handle at G. The exhaust is controlled by the lever, D, and a cam on the reducing gear. The low speed gear, L, has an overrunning - ratchet at R. The motor is of one horse power at 200 revolutions; cylinder, 3 1/2 inches diameter, 6 inch stroke, of cast iron, ^ inch thick at the combustion end. The outer shell is of thin metal driven over the cylinder flanges. H a , Q
The crank shaft of the motor is bored for an oil recess and plugged; it holds oil for a day's run. The gasoline gravitates to the inlet valve, A, through the perculator, G, and atomizes by the air drawn in through B by the suction of the piston. The ignition tube is of platinum , heated by a gasoline vapor jet, in the flaring recess below the chimney, D. A perforated or wire gauze boxaround the flame jet protects it from air rush.
The engine has to be started with the friction brake off, by turning the crank, S, Fig. 154.
The whole rig is not up to date, but yet furnishes some good hints on construction. The steering gear is not approved.
The bergman motor carriage.
The Bergman is a German gasoline motor carriage, shown in elevation in Fig. 156, and a plan of the frame and running gear in Fig. 157.
The frame work is made of steel tubing. The front wheels are 28 inches diameter, with pneumatic tires; rear wheels, 40 inches diameter, with solid rubber tires. The cylinder, which occupies a central position, is 5 inches diameter, 6£inch stroke, developing 4 horse power at 400 revolutions per minute, and is of the 4-cycle type. The cylinder is cooled by a circulation of water from rectangular tanks on each side of the carriage, as shown in the plan, Fig. 157. A drum on the crank shaft is belted to a fast and loose pulley on a counter shaft, with a change speed gear. The top crank in front of the seat is for steering; the handle just beneath it for operating the change speed gear and for shifting the belt. A
small button in front of the seat operates the needle valve in the mixer, the air being drawn in through a spring valve in line with the button on left side of the seat. The gasoline tank is at the rear left side, and encloses the carburetor. The carburetor, hanging from the rear left corner of the vehicle, contains a controlling mechanism adjusting itself automatically under all conditions of road, so that a constant mixture is supplied to the motor. This consists of a vessel containing gasoline, and suspended on levers inside a receptacle . The vessel is counter-balanced by weights on the levers, or arranged as a float, provision being made for an admission valve for the liquid, an inlet for the air, and a float for effecting the admixture of the air and gas, at approximately the same height above or below the level of the liquid. This vessel may be placed on a spring for retarding its downward movement, and closing the valve when the vessel receives an excess of liquid. The valve regulating the inlet of the liquid is pressed on its seat by a spring mounted on an extension of the valve spindle, which, when the valve closes, can slide further independently while the disk keeps the valve tightly closed. A double mixing valve secures the even composition of the explosive mixture at each opening of the regulator, the width of passage for the gas mixture, which is always in the same proportion to that for the air, being regulated by a revolving slide.
A small pipe from the exhaust carries heat to the carburetor to counteract its cooling by evaporation. The muffler hanging beneath the cylinder, is a chamber enclosing the end of the perforated exhaust pipe, with an outlet pointing down to the road bed. The lever at the side of the seat is the brake handle. A pneumatic whistle hangs on the front of the steering spindle.
The clement gasoline vehicle.
In Fig. 158 is illustrated the outlines of a French gasoline motor carriage of very light weight, 575 pounds, and in Fig. i59 an outline section of the motor. The carriage frame is made of thin steel tubing, shown at A, Fig. 158, carried on leaf springs fixed to the rear axle at L, and swiveled on the forward axle at K. The rear axle is carried in a fork with a swivel at Q to equalize inequalities in the road, and to prevent torsion in the tubular frame on which the carriage body
rests. A gasoline tank under the seat, AT, supplies, through independent tubes, O and O', the fuel for the motive power, and for the tube igniter burner. At N, in the dash-board box, is the lubricating oil can, with tubes leading to the running parts of the motor.
The speed changes are made by gears in a three-speed gear train at D, and controlled by the lever, E. A strap brake on the secondary shaft at H, operated by the foot pedal, I, and an additional brake on the axle operated by
the lever, G, controls the carriage. Speeds of 4, i0, i5 and 20 miles per hour are available. The lever handle, AT, has two movements for steering, with the controlling levers, E, G, attached. In Fig. 159 is illustrated the details of one of the two four-cycle motors which are hung in a frame fixed to the tube frame of the carriage. The cylinder is ribbed for air cooling. The cylinder and internal moving parts are lubricated by oil dash in the closed crank chamber. A vibrating lever, Q, operated by a cam on the reducing gear shaft controls the motor by the exhaust, the motion of which is uniform, and not regulated by the inlet charged. The special feature of this motor is the carburetor, H, through which the exhaust is passed, heating and vaporizing the charge drawn in through the pipe, O, and an automatic valve where it is mixed with warm air drawn from the pipe connection with the Bunsen burner case above the platinum ignitor, F. The Bunsen burner, G, has a vaporizer . The other lettered parts are in evidence by inspection.
Vehicles of the international motor wheel co.—302 west fifty-third street, new york city.
The novel single-wheel motor here illustrated is the invention of Mr. J. W. Walters, New York City. As a class it is somewhat unique as encompassing the speed gear within the single driving wheel. The device consists of a rubber tired wooden wheel, actuated by a two-cylinder gasoline motor, that is suspended on one side. On the other side two gasoline tanks that supply the fuel are held in position. The motor acts upon the wheel by means of a loosely mounted pinion meshing into a gear upon the wooden wheel. A clutch mechanism, the lever of which is within reach of the driver on the wagon, enables the latter to stop and start the vehicle at will. Owing to the novel nature of this invention a complication of machinery is avoided. It requires no backing mechanism . By simply reversing the motor-wheel with the steering bar and starting the motor, the vehicle runs backward. Fig. 160 shows the motor wheel attached to a carriage, with the steering and motor-operating handle in its proper position.
A side view of the motor wheel, Fig. 16i, shows the two motors of the four-cycle type, at right angles, driving a pinion on the axis of the wheel which meshes in a pair of spur gears for operating the valves. A friction clutch transfers
the motor power to the wheel through a set of spur gears meshed in an internal geared wheel forming part of the driving wheel. In Fig. 162 is detailed a section of the motor and wheel.
The valve gear is on the side next the fly-wheel and the speed gear on the center line of the wheel. In Fig. 163 is illustrated the general appearance of the motor wheel standing independent of the vehicle, and in Fig. 164 its attachment to a delivery wagon.
The underberg voiturette.
This is a French gasoline motor carriage or double-seated phaeton design, built by M. E. Underberg, Nantes, France. The elevation in Fig. 165 and the plan in Fig. 166 represent the leading details. The forward reverse seat is for one person, and on the opposite side from the driver's seat, thus giving a clear view forward for the operator. The motor is a single cylinder Gailardet pattern with radial ribs for air cooling, and is set vertically at M, over the front
axle in the plan, having a free circulation of air for cooling the cylinder.
The carburetor, C, is of the constant level type, atomizing the gasoline by indraft of air by the suction of the piston. The gasoline tank being placed under the rear seat, is high enough to allow of a flow to the carburetor by gravity. The motor is pinioned to a spur gear on a counter shaft, A, Fig. 166, carrying four gears; one of which is in constant gear with a spur wheel on a second shaft, B. The three gears on the counter shaft are fastened on a feathered sleeve, controlled by the bell crank, C, and the hand lever at L, Fig. 165.
A pulley on the second shaft at P carries a belt to a pulley on the compensating gear of the rear axle. The pulleys have guard flanges. The rear axle is so hung that by levers and links, the foot pedal, Fig. 165, is made the means of making the belt loose or tight, thus obviating the use of a friction clutch for starting the motor. The crank handle for steering is at the right side of the
seat and linked under the carriage body to the arms of the pivoted wheel axles. The vehicle weighs six hundred pounds, has an average speed of fifteen miles per hour, and will climb a grade of eight per cent. under the slow speed. The frame is made of steel tubing, if inches diameter, and suspended on springs. Wheels have pneumatic tires and ball bearings. Electric ignition by induction spark is regulated by a side handle on the steering lever.
Motors and vehicles of the automobile company of america.
The motors of this company have been heretofore known as the "American Motor," built by the American Motor Company, 32 Broadway, New York City. The new organization is at the same location. They supply motors for all purposes, stationary, carriage and marine, the smaller sizes with either ribbed or water cooled cylinders . The motors of this company are made with single cylinders of one and two horse power and as duplex motors of two and four horse power for vehicles; all of the four-cycle compression type. The smallest ribbed air cooled motor weighs 50 and the 2 horse power motor of the same type weighs 75 pounds, without flywheels .. All their motors are crank encased with aluminum. The vertical water jacketed motor, Fig. 167, is 3 1/2 horse
power and the horizontal water jacketed motor, Fig. 168, is horse power. This is the smallest that is made of this
type for vehicles. The lever centered on the reducing gear is for varying the time of the exhaust for controlling the motor.
The duplex air cooled motor, Fig. 169, has also an aluminum crank case, and is a very light motor for a carriage. The motors are regulated both by variable charge and by delayed electric ignition. Fig. 170 represents their Stanhope, one of the newest and most approved styles on the market.
The grout gasoline motor carriage.
In Figs. 171 to 175 are illustrated a line of automobile carriages as built by Grout Bros., Orange, Mass. The motors of these carriages consist of two cylinders, four-cycle compression type, neatly enclosed in a case and
of about six horse power or sufficient for the weight and use of each vehicle. 1 he two passenger trap, as are the other vehicles, are furnished with electric side lights with a current from the ignition dynamo which sparks the motor and also furnishes current for an electric alarm.
Variable speeds from both motor charge and speed gear give ranges from 4 to i8 miles per hour. The lighter vehicles have a single steel tube frame strongly made with braced joints at the fittings. The wheels are made with solid hubs, steel rims, wood spokes and steel sockets. Tires, 34 x 3 inch pneumatic or solid tires when desired. Tread, 56 inches; wheel base, 63 inches. Weight from i,000 to i,400 pounds, according to style.
Ball bearings on the lighter vehicles. Delivery wagons are also a product of this company of which the illustration, Fig. 17i, is a representation. They also propose to build steam carriages if desired.
The sintz gasoline motors and vehicles.
The Sintz Gas Engine Company, Grand Rapids, Mich., have adapted their motors to vehicle service. In Fig. 176 is illustrated carriages, omnibus, inspection and a street railway car, as operated by their motors.
The motor is of the two-cycle compression type, with enclosed crank and piston connections. It is a valveless gasoline motor, with electric ignition by a finger brake sparking device in the head of the cylinder. In Fig. 177 is shown the cylinder with the piston at the end of the down stroke. The upward stroke draws the mixed c'large into the crank chamber. The downward stroke compresses the charge in the chamber, and into the space around the lower end of the cylinder of sufficient amount to force an explosive charge
into the cylinder when the descent of the piston opens the inlet port and closes the charging port shown at the lower end of the cylinder. The charge is made by the expansion of the gasoline and air mixture contained in the annular space into which it had been previously compressed by the descent of the piston.
The exhaust port on the opposite side of the cylinder, as shown by the arrow, is opened by the descent of the piston before the charging port, giving the relief to the cylinder pressure just before the inlet port opens. The lip on the piston deflects the incoming charge up and against the ignitor, thus insuring a fresh charge at and around the sparking finger at every revolution.
The mueller motor carriage.
In Fig. 178 is illustrated the motor carriage of the Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, 111. It is in style a trap or dos-a-dos, with wood spoke wheels and pneumatic tires, and is an improvement on the " Benz" model, brought out from Germany. The frame of this carriage forms a continuous tube for
cooling the water circulation and is plugged between the two pipe connections to the water-jacketed cylinder, so that the circulation is continued through the cylinder jacket and the cooling coil on the front of the dash-board, as shown in the cut. A small tank suspended between the front part of the frame holds the surplus water supply. The motor, which is single, of the four-cycle compression type, is bracketed to the frame and supported just above the rear wheel axle. A sprocket wheel on the motor shaft and chain drives a sprocket on the counter shaft, which, by the shifting of clutches, there is obtained three speeds forward and a reverse slow speed. The forward cone has two loose pulleys and internal clutches for making interchangeable pulley speeds.
The frame supporting the counter shaft cone pulleys, compensating gear and wheel-driving sprockets is saddled upon the side bar tubes of the frame to enable the shifting of the counter shaft forward by means of screws and nut blocks, for tightening the chains and belts. The front axle is swiveled vertically to accommodate inequalities in the road. Knuckle joints at the wheels connect by arms and links to a bell crank on the vertical steering spindle, which also contains the several movements for operating the motor.
The hertel motor carriage, built by the oakman motor vehicle company, greenfield, mass.
In Figs. 180 and i8i are illustrated a rear and front quarter view of one of the lightest hydro-carbon motor vehicles on the market, its weight averaging 500 pounds. The steering gear is peculiar to this vehicle, being a pair of bicycle wheels supported in bicycle forks, the right hand one being jointed to a steering handle extending to the seat. At the
junction of the fork and socket of each steering wheel is an arm projecting to the rear, and these arms are joined by a link rod, thus making a simple and perfect movement of each wheel from the steering handle.
The steering wheels are made to assume automatically a direct line course by a helical spring and check-chain connection between the arms, making the link connection, so that if the steering handle is dropped from the hand the carriage will run straight forward, and will not turn out of its course.
The steering wheels are not hung directly to the forks, but are on short links, pivoted to the ends of the fork prongs, and held in position by curved springs, so that the wheels will take inequalities in the road or override obstructions without transmitting the jar to the body of the vehicle. The power is obtained from a double cylinder gasoline motor, 3§-inch by 4f-inch stroke, of 2\ horse power.
Its crank shaft is geared to a high-speed driving shaft, with universal joints and elastic V shaped friction-pinions that mesh in a driving rim fastened on the inside of each rear wheel.
A muffler for each cylinder deadens the sound of the exhaust. One of the mufflers is arranged to heat the air for vaporizing the gasoline.
The fly wheel is on the high speed shaft, thus enabling the required regulating duty from a light fly wheel. By the manipulation of the single motor lever, the operation of turning over the motor for starting, the locking of the friction gear, regulation of the speed by the quantity of the charge, an increase of power on up grades and the wheel brake motion is obtained by a few movements of the left hand on the handle of the lever.
A small generator running by belt from the high speed shaft furnishes the current for electric ignition with a storage battery reserve. The vehicle carries a gasoline charge for a run of 75 miles. Maximum speed 20 miles per hour.
In Fig. 182 is illustrated the controlling and starting gear of the Hertei motor, consisting of an operating lever with a central rod having a vertical motion controlled by a pin on the vertical rod traversed by a helical slot in the handle. The handle having a rotary motion with an index on top to gauge the position of the charging valve. The helical slot is shown in the handle at the right. The small hand clip when closed upon the handle lifts the rod linked to it and the stop on the starting pawl, when the pawl drops into the teeth of the geared crank wheel and a fore and aft motion of the lever starts the motor in motion ; at the same time a twist of the handle by the hand opens the gasoline regulating valve by the movement of the rod and attached bell crank, shown at the left in Fig. 182, by which the long lever shown at the bottom of the cut, is given a horizontal movement that oper
ates the plunger in the gasoline regulating valve shown at the lower left hand corner in the cut.
The same movement of the hand clip also releases the small hook pawl from the lever of the rock shaft which makes contact of the V driving pulley with the friction rim of the vehicle wheel, thus allowing the motor freedom to start. When the motor is started the hand clip is released; the springs draw the rod down, throws up the starting pawl and locks the hook pawl in the arm of the rock shaft controlling the contact of the V driving pulley with the wheel rim of the carriage. The mechanism of the driving pulley is shown in Fig. 183. On one end of the counter shaft is a link connecting it to the rock shaft arm and the brake, which is also operated by an extreme backward movement of the hand lever.
One-half of the V driving pulley is fixed to the shaft, the other half is closed by a spring, so that for slow motion and a hard pull for up grades a strong pressure forward on the handle bar presses the contact of the V pulley well towards its center and thereby increases its pressure and power. For applying the brake a backward pull of the hand lever releases the contact of the driving V pulley and brings the brake arm in contact with the wheel tire.
The winton motor carriages.
In Fig. 184 is illustrated a line of the hydro-carbon motor carriages of the Winton Motor Carriage Company, of Cleveland , Ohio, in which a " Fire Chief's" fast wagon takes the lead followed by two phaetons and a line of delivery wagons. In Fig. 185 is illustrated their latest design of a phaeton, and in Figs. 186 and i87 two models of their delivery wagon.
The long run of a Winton phaeton from Cleveland, O., to New York in May, i899, seems to have established the stability of the Winton type for hard work on rough roads. The enduring qualities of its motor and running gear was proved by the trip of over 700 miles in 47^ hours running time, averaging nearly i5 miles per hour, and making at times 25 miles per hour.
Many improvements in the details of the motor and running gear have been made during the past year towards simplicity and automatic adjustment of parts, ease of access, balancing of motor and convenience in handling that has brought the "Winton Vehicles " to the front among all of the automobiles.
In the delivery wagons, as also in the lighter carriage
the driving mechanism is snugly concealed in the body of the vehicle. The wheels are 32 inch diameter front and 36 inch rear. orovided with 3-inch pneumatic tires, which are prac
tically puncture-proof. Ball bearings are used at all important points, thus securing the greatest possible freedom from friction and wear.
In Fig. 188 is illustrated the general plan oi the running gear, in which it will be readily observed that the main driving speed, as well also, the intermediate and backing speeds, are operated by friction disks through the operation of two hand levers. A third hand lever being used for steering, all placed convenient for the driver on the right hand side of the vehicle.
The brake pulley is placed on the counter-shaft, with its
brake strap operated by an arm on a supplementary shaft, w hich also carries the arm that operates the motor friction disks, so that by a single movement from the vertical to the rear of the operating hand lever the motor is disconnected and the brake applied. The other hand lever being used for change speed and backing. The motor which is of the single hydro-carbon type is well balanced to give the vehicle freedom from vibration, and which, by the gasoline charge control, has a variable speed from 200 to 900 revolutions per minute, thus giving easy grades in changing the speed of the vehicle.
Among the improvements that have been lately put on the new Winton carriages may be mentioned an automatic oiler, oiling all bearings, and iron composition, instead of bronze boxes. Instead of working on an arm, as in the earlier vehicles, the counterbalance now works in a direct line, obviating up and down vibration. The gasoline feed has been simplified, and is coupled direct to the valve stem. All the machinery is more accessible, and a more convenient mode of adjustment has been adopted. Phosphor bronze gears are used, and a new tubular water tank greatly assists radiation, rendering a small supply of water sufficient. The phaeton carries a supply of gasoline for a run of 75 miles at a cost of about one-half cent per mile. The Winton Company also make an elegant top surrey on the same lines of finish as the phaeton, which will become very popular for touring parties.
Vehicles of the auto car company and the pittsburg motor vehicle company.
These companies are now merged in the latter named company, with their main office and works at Swissvale , Pa.
In Fig. 189 is illustrated their top buggy, or runabout, a light running vehicle, highly finished, and well adapted for a physician or business man. Weight, 500 pounds. In Fig. 190 is illustrated their park trap, an elegant vehicle for ladies' use. It is handsomely upholstered, and has a graceful and finished design. It weighs 800 pounds. This company also make a delivery wagon of light and neat design.
The motors are of the four-cycle type, two in number, placed end to end, on cranks i800 apart, thus balancing all parts of the motor and eliminating the usual vibration of single cylinder motors.
The cylinders of the light carriages are ribbed and so placed as to receive a free circulation of air for cooling the cylinder. The motors of the heavier vehicles are waterjacketed and connected to a water tank under the footboard , which is perforated with 50 i-inch copper tubes, so arranged as to condense the water vapor in the tank, and to keep the water at the proper temperature for cooling the cylinders. The cooling water is circulated by a small centrifugal pump.
The power is transmitted from the engine shaft direct to the rear axle by chain and sprockets. The rear axle sprocket contains the differential gear, and a brake-band wheel, with an additional brake on the motor shaft, which is controlled by the same lever that controls the speed of the motor; the other brake is operated by a foot pedal. The speed of the motor is further regulated by delaying the time of ignition, which is by the electric spark from a small generator, which also charges a storage battery for starting the motor.
When the motor reaches its full speed the storage battery connection is automatically changed when the surplus current recharges the battery.
All parts of the motor not exposed to heat, are made of aluminum, thus making the motor as light as it seems possible for this type of prime mover. A special slow speed gear is provided for hill climbing, which is quickly thrown in, and allows of the full power of the motor to be used for the steepest road grades at a slow speed of the vehicle. An indicator card from this motor shows faultless lines of com
pression and expansion. Compression, 75 pounds; ignition pressure, 250 pounds; exhaust, 20 pounds.
Vehicles of the iwryea manufacturing company, springfield, mass.
In Fig. 191 is illustrated the speedy automobile that won prizes in England in 1896, and in the Cosmopolitan race in New York. The vehicles of this company are operated by two or three-cylinder gasoline motors, with belts and clutch change gears on a counter shaft, with sprocket and
chain transmission to the compensating gear box on the bisected driving axle.
The frames of the vehicles are made of steel. The wheels have wood spokes, with 2 1/2-inch pneumatic tires, 30 inch front, 34 inch rear wheels; speeds, variable, 5, i0 and 20 miles per hour, and can reach 30 miles per hour on asphalt roads. The motors are independent, so that a disabling of one does not disable the carriage. These vehicles have a tank capacity for 8 gallons of gasoline, sufficient for more than a i00 miles run.
Motor vehicles of the duryba manufacturing company, peoria, ILL.
The gasoline motor vehicles of the Peoria Company seem to have had a marked success in their endurance and speed qualities, as shown in the results of the Chicago Times-Herald race in i8y5, the Cosmopolitan race in i896 and the Liberty Day run in England against the winners in the French races. The low three wheel vehicles or tricycles are the favorite
styles made by this company, and seem to meet all objections . It is light, quickly mounted and carries sufficient power for the medium roads of the country, even in snowy and muddy weather.
In Fig. 193 we illustrate two of their three wheelers, plowing through a i0-inch snow, and in Fig. 194 the same style of vehicle pushing its way through Illinois mud. In Fig. 192 is illustrated the same style of vehicle mounted with two forward wheels t.> suit the taste of parties that think two wheels are better than one for steering or for appearance.
The Park tricycle or motor trap with canopy top, Fig. 195, is made with two or with one seat as desired. The single steering wheel is light, clean and less complicated, less
in the way in mounting, and can be handled more easily and quickly than two wheels. Fig. 196 is an outline plan of the vehicle and location of the mechanism.
The motor is placed horizontally under the front seat, and consists of three cylinders 4 1/2 x 4 1/2 inches, with a flywheel 16 inches diameter weighing 80 pounds; the motor complete, including fly wheel, weighs 200 pounds, and is of 6-horse power.
A single feed pipe supplies all three cylinders at head of motor. A single exhaust chamber, lying on top of the cylinders, carries the gases to a single muffler. A single insulated wire carries the electric current for sparking A single set of cam shaft gears operates all the valves and sparkers. A single water jacket and water tank keeps the motor cool; while the added parts to make three
cylinders are duplicates of the parts required in a single cylinder.
A fuel tank under the front floor carries sufficient ordinary stove gasoline for one hundred to two hundred miles' driving , while the water tank under the rear seat insures the motor against overheating.
The motor is throttled like a locomotive, and speeds from three to thirty miles per hour may be had on good roads by a simple turn of the wrist. For mud or hill climbing a special power gear on the motor shatt is provided, giving three times the power at one third the speed, either forward or backward as desired.
The controlling lever centrally placed gives absolute control of the vehicle in one hand and by either rider. The lateral swing of the lever steers, twisting the handle, throttles the motor, while a vertical motion starts and changes the speed. These movements are as easy as guiding a sad die horse, and their effect upon the vehicle is instantaneous, so that these machines are much safer, although driven at high speed, than horse vehicles.
The central foot brake gives further ability to stop, and a heel pedal operates the reverse or back motion. The total weight is but about seven hundred pounds empty, and the large power is sufficient to drive the vehicle over any roads passable by ordinary traffic.
In their lighter vehicles a starting stirrup is used by the foot, which by pushing downward starts the motor, thus avoiding the soiling of the hand in applying a crank to the
motor shaft. In the larger vehicles a crank is used. The electric ignition is obtained direct from a generator driven by a belt from the fly wheel. A mixer or atomizer under the control of the hand on the steering lever controls the speed of the motors by the quantity of charge admitted to the cylinders.
In Fig. 196 it is noted that the reversing gear is contained in the power drum, and the differential gear is in the large sprocket wheel on the axle.
Vehicles of the detroit automobile company, detroit, mich.
This company has brought out a line of gasoline motor vehicles that make a complete outfit for all the wants of automobile work for pleasure or business. Fig. 197 illustrates their Runabout.
The general outline and finish of all their vehicles are designed with similar parts and the running and motor gear are interchangeable on all the light carriages. The touring cart is a convertible vehicle most desirable for its kind. In place of the rear box for parcels or hand grip, its removal gives place for a trunk, or a seat may take its place and you have a stylish dos-a-aos. The suspension steel wheels and rubber tires are alike in all their carriages and the forward steering wheels are pivoted at the hubs.
Among the distinctive features of these vehicles are, the single lever which by a forward and backward movement through the space of about i2 inches, starts the engine, and controls the forward speeds and the backup, doing away with the confusion arising from a multiplication of levers. The automatic feeding device gives perfect combustion at any speed, leaving no odor from unconsumed gases. A perfectly balanced engine, with absolutely no vibration. A device, actuated by a button under the foot, which controls the speed, which may be varied from a slow walk to about 40 miles per hour, for the pleasure vehicles. An absolutely new sparking device, which is positive, never fails, and is practically indestructible. Every part is encased and is dust and water proof. No chains or belts of any kind, the driving gear being connected direct to the rear axle, through the compensating gear. A flexible yet rigid frame.
The style and finish of these vehicles are most acceptable to good taste in the purchasers of the automobile type of pleasure carriages.
The delivery wagon is built on the same lines as their other vehicles in motor and running gear, and is a light and quick moving vehicle for light trade.
The general power company automobile motor.
The general public is now becoming familiar with the relative advantages, as well as the limitations of each special type of motor used in automobiles.
A recent occurrence in India calls attention to the form of fuel commonly used in internal combustion motors. The Autocar stated that a recent consignment of "petrol" or naphtha automobiles was refused admission to India by the British Customs authorities, in consequence of the alleged danger attending the use of the required fuel. It is not difficult to determine what qualities are required in a satisfactory fuel for internal combustion engines for automobiles.
Engines of this character, in order to be generally available , must utilize some form of liquid fuel that is obtainable in all localities.
The fuel adopted must be a low cost one, if the automobile is to be commonly used for commercial purposes. The ideal fuel should have the highest possible thermodynamic value per given unit of weight.
Although last named, safety is an element of the first importance in a fuel intended for universal use. To recapitulate, the perfect fuel for vehicles of all kinds (i)must be obtainable everywhere; (2)mustbe liquid inform; (3) must be low cost; (4) must have the highest possible thermodynamic value ; (5) must be safe.
Only one such fuel exists. It is that safe product of petroleum prepared for illuminating purposes, and known commercially as mineral oil, called in some parts of Europe, paraffine, and known throughout America as kerosene. The following table shows its superiority over other wellknown forms of stored energy:
Thus it will be seen that one pound of petroleum or refined kerosene oil used to produce power in an internal combustion oil engine develops far more mechanical energy than an equal weight of any other medium, either for producing or storing power.
In consequence of the wastefulness incident to all small steam engines, the fuel required for a steam wagon for a trip of 50 miles, will cover five times that distance when used in an internal combustion motor.
It requires 35 pounds of liquefied air, and more than 300 pounds of storage battery to equal the power obtainable from one pound of kerosene oil, costing about one cent. As a reservoir of power, one gallon of oil is superior to one ton of storage battery. If air could be compressed to liquefaction and supplied gratuitously to consumers the extra cost of storage and transportation would render it inferior in economy to commercial mineral oil. In fact, kerosene is simply gaseous solar energy, having the capacity of liquefying at ordinary temperatures.
Domestic kerosene of 120 degrees Fahr. flash and 150 degrees Fahr. fire test has a specific gravity of about o 785, and one gallon will equal 8.33 x .785 = 6.539 pounds. B. T. U. per gallon = 135,357Petroleum and all its products possess practically the same calorific value per pound weight. The weights of the different products vary, and consequently the calorific value is not uniform per gallon, but it is uniform per unit of weight. The best authorities give the heat units in a pound of petroleum as 21,000. At 60 degrees Fahr. 86° Baume gasoline weighs 88.4 ounces per gallon. In other words, the calorific value of a gallon of 86° gasoline is to the value of a gallon of kerosene oil as 88.4 is to 104, therefore gasoline has 18 percent. less value, gallon for gallon, for fuel purposes than kerosene oil.
It is thus evident that even where gasoline is obtainable and safety ignored, the selling price per gallon should be i8 per cent, less than kerosene in order to produce power at the same cost as kerosene. Thus, if kerosene can be purchased at 10 cents per gallon, gasoline should be purchasable at 8.2 cents per gallon in order to compete.
It is well known, however, that gasoline is always higher in price than kerosene, though lower in thermal units. The General Power Company, of 100 William Street, New York, is making a specialty of employing the "Secor" method of utilizing oil of high fire test for motors for all power purposes.
A recent successful adaptation of their system to electric lighting is the oil-electric motor for isolated plants. The baffling problem of complete combustion of heavy oils is practically solved, the exhaust being as colorless as from a perfectly-adjusted gas engine. Careful tests show that the direct connected electrical plant furnished by the General Power Company possesses the following features, viz.: reliability, durability, saving of weight and space, low cost of operation, ability to maintain uniform voltage without fluctuation, and perfect combustion.
The freedom from vibration, and the capacity for using ordinary illuminating oil—inherent features of this system— at once challenges the attention of those interested in automobiles .
At the urgent request of several prominent American manufacturers of automobiles, who foresaw the greatly enlarged sphere of usefulness open to an internal combustion motor, embodying the "Secor system," the General Power Company undertook the production of an automobile motor.
The Secor automobile motor embraces three distinctive features: (1) it burns kerosene; (2) it is reliable in operation; (3) it is free from vibration. In regard to the first feature, it should be stated that perfect combustion is maintained through an extreme range of speed as well as of power.
The importance of the second distinctive feature of this system can scarcely be overestimated. The erratic behavior, and uncertainly of operation of internal combustion motors is greatly exaggerated when such motors are applied to automobile use. Inevitable atmospheric changes, resulting in variation of humidity and temperature, not infrequently have an unpleasant effect on internal combustion motors. Referring to the third special feature in the Secor automobile motor, absence of vibration, it is well known that the ordinary methods of balancing either stationary or marine engines are entirely inadequate when applied to automobiles .
In a wagon there is no foundation whatever. Again the vibration appears to be increased by the unavoidable conditions affecting an automobile.
Inasmuch as it is impossible to supply a firm foundation to a carriage motor, it became necessary to devise a mechanical arrangement which would absolutely eliminate the recoil or shock incident alike to the cannon and the reciprocating engine, caused by unbalanced pressure.
So far as a cannon is concerned, if the bore were continuous from end to end, and the charge placed between two cannon balls of equal dimensions and weight, each equally free to move in opposite directions, the recoil of ihe gun itself would be nil.
The problem of exactly balancing the stresses of a reciprocating engine is more difficult, however, by reason of the change from pressure on the piston to torque on the shaft. The Secor balanced motor is a successful solution of the problem of suppressing vibration by balancing all stresses caused by the expansion of the gases within the cylinder, as well as those stresses caused by the kinetic change from reciprocating to rotary movement, and the stresses due to centrifugal effect.
The method embodied in the Secor system retains the advantages of enlarged radius of travel and high speed of carriage of the internal combustion motor, in combination with the safety and absence of vibration of the electrically driven vehicle, using at the same time a form of condensed power—kerosene—available in all lands.