Electric motive power for vehicles
The wonderful development of electrical appliances within the past few years, for power purposes, and their great economy, adaptability, and usefulness in that line, as shown by the universal adoption of electricity for the propulsion of street railway cars also clearly demonstrates the superiority of electricity as a convenient and easily controlled power for motor vehicles, which are now becoming so popular. While the well-known trolley car takes its power through the overhead or underground wires and conductors from an inexhaustible source of electricity, the motor vehicle is limited to the charge or amount it can carry, in consequence of the fact that it is intended to travel in places and over roads where there is no continuous outside supply of electricity. Hence the means of storing electricity economically in the form of batteries is now one of the problems which is undergoing development.
New ideas are constantly being worked out, and it is confidently expected improvements will continue by which greater efficiency will result. At present changes have been made in the construction of storage batteries whereby a surprisingly large quantity of active material is put into a small space, and this accounts for the neater appearance electric motor vehicles now possess over former designs. It is also a fact that the aggregate weight of battery for the amount of current discharge obtained is less than formerly.
The factor of weight is one of the features in electric vehicles that practical men are working to overcome, and it is said that whenever a storage battery or a system of storing the electric current is invented by which the weight of the battery is greatly reduced, there is certain to be an impetus given to electric motor vehicle industry such as has never been thought of.
One of the essential requirements in a motor vehicle is that the reserve power shall be instantly available for a brief period of time, as, for example, when heavy grades are met with. In a storage battery this condition is perfectly met, the increase of current demanded being readily given off and accurately measured by the ampere meter, so that, by observing the latter, while traveling on an apparently level road, one can detect slight grades by the varying position of the ampere needle.
The battery may be considered as an elastic equalizer capable of giving off, in an instant, the amount of current needed at various times and emergencies. This makes electricity an ideal power for vehicles, for it eliminates the complicated machinery of either steam, gasoline or compressed air motors, with their attendant noise, heat and vibration. It is not only serviceable as power, but also as light at night.
The electric vehicle, since its inception, has had scarcely a decade of years, in which to bring it to its present efficient development. It has been an evolution, gradual, though rapid; for many have contributed to its success, which has finally placed on a firm basis one of the leading dreams of the early inventors and engineers on the possibilities and outcome of the rotary motor. This achievement in the line of electric power can hardly be overestimated. Numberless inventors and engineers have struggled, toiled and finally passed with the solution of the enchanted problem of rotary motion almost within their grasp in other lines. It remained for the electric motor to give the final and complete solution. A rotary motor with no oscillating or reciprocating parts has at last been developed. It delivers torque, pure and simple—constant and regular, and has a capacity measured by its size, and an efficiency measured by other motors, nothing short of wonderful. The motor was simply ideal.
At first much was said to the effect that this motor was not a prime mover; but that it had been hitched to a primary power. Its system of connection with the prime source of power is at once so complete, and its association so intimate as to perform more acceptably and economically than the prime mover itself, and as compared with the smaller sources of power, its economy back to the fuel, even at miles distant , was found to be superior.
The fact that the electric motor is a rotary motor, contributes to the success of electric motor driven systems to a degree difficult to overestimate. Our compressed air advocates, compelled, as they are, to use a multiplicity of reciprocating parts as motors, have made a step backward, and are certainly in the rear in this, as in other features of their system.
The electric automobile coming upon the scene at this time falls heir to many of the rich results worked out in connection with tramway traction. There are many who go so far as to predict that the younger claimant will displace the former methods, especially in the lighter class of street service, and this, doubtless, will be the case to a large degree in the near future.
Electric railways are rapidly reaching out with wider radii of operation and heavier and heavier equipment, and the automobile will doubtless have wide use as supplemental to the heavier systems. In fact, co-operation has already been proposed in a number of instances. Its great flexibility and independence of track render it the ideal urban conveyance.
As the perfection of the electric motor gave the first impetus to electric tramway traction, so the point now reached in the perfection of the storage battery will yield equal results in the field of the electric automobile. The past three years have advanced the art remarkably, and drawn to it the attention of both skill and capital, and results have followed.
The perfected storage battery presents some remarkable features. It even rivals the electric motor in its fitness and special adaptability to the automobile problem. Its very large reserve power at instant command; its entire freedom from danger when fully charged; its almost constant pressure throughout its capacity ; its recently developed capacity for quick charging; and ease with which charge may be obtained in almost any hamlet in the country, are among its advantages.
Tests of the principal types of storage batteries in use in Europe as published are trustworthy as to their specific capacity at their various rates; but their stability is not always assured under the severe vibration due to vehicular traffic. Improvements are in order, and progressive towards an enduring stability in the electric storage battery .
Fortunately materials are at hand and systems of developing the plates are now being perfected that will render them thoroughly reliable and commercial to a degree commensurate with reasonable requirements.
The electric brougham.
In Fig. 204 is illustrated an electric brougham or cab, in which the driver's seat is forward, as in the older style of cabs. The battery is placed beneath the cab floor, with a
drop floor to carry the battery trays. The motors are geared to spur wheels on the hubs, a French design. The style of automobile mostly in use in Europe and the United States is the phaeton, without or with a top, and which in many vehicles, are made removable to suit the conditions of the weather. Others are also provided with a temporary seat and foot-board attachable at the rear, forming , practically, a dos-a-dos, thus, with a single vehicle, a convertible all-round establishment may be made a great convenience for a family, a physician or business man The Victoria of Bouquet, Garcin & Schivre. Paris, France,
A french victoria.
is an elegant and stately design lor a private pleasure carriage . It is illustrated in Fig. 206.
It has a steel frame attached to the running gear by elliptic springs, and is arranged for interchangeable bodies. The complete vehicle weighs 2,200 pounds, while the battery weighs but 770 pounds, and is placed in the seat box over the forward Wheels. The motor weighs 88 pounds, is rated at 4 horse pow er, and located beneath the seat over the driving wheels. It is geared to an intermediate shaft, with differential gear, and the power transmitted to the carriage wheels through chains and sprocket wheels. The speed has seven changes up to i5 miles per hour.
The carriage has a total run of 60 miles on a single battery charge.
The jenatzy dog phaeton.
This vehicle, built by the Societe Generate des Transports. Automobile of France, is a utility accommodation for two to five persons. The extended box at the rear provides for a temporary seat, and encloses one battery and an open type motor, series wound and rated at 4 horse power, with speed regulation for 3 1/4 and 7 1/2 miles per hour. The battery is in two groups, connected in parallel for the low speed, and in series for the higher speed. In line with the armature shaft, a second shaft is connected to it by a universal joint, which shaft carries two loose pinions meshing in gears keyed to the differential gear shaft that carries the driving sprockets. A clutch between the loose pinions, which are of different sizes, changes the speed for two rates, thus making four speeds in all.
The battery is in two groups of 22 cells each, one of which is under the driver's seat, and the other at the end of the box extension.
The steering is by the forward wheels, which are pinioned at the ends of a fixed axle. The pedal controls the band brakes on the differential gear axle, and a lever operates a wheel or emergency brake, not shown in the illustration, Fig. 207.
The krieger coupe.
This French carriage is a novelty in the method of placing of the motors, which are fixed on the pivots of the front steering wheels, and geared direct to a spur wheel fixed to the hub of each steering wheel. The motors are four pole, two of which are series wound and the others shunt wound. It would seem that the position of the motors attached wholly to the steering pivots would injure them by exces sive vibration, but lengthy trials have proved that the pneumatic tires were fully equal to the required protection. The various conditions of grouping the batteries and the field winding give armature speeds from 200 to i,203 revolutions per minute, with carriage speeds up to i2 miles per hour.
In going down hill the motors act as generators feeding back to the battery. Fig. 208 is an outlined front view, showing the position of the electric motors, and Fig. 209 is a photo engraved view of the coupe.
The jeantaud cab and coupe.
In Fig. 210 is illustrated the Jeantaud cab, and in Fig. 21i the Jeantaud coupe as built by M. Jeantaud, Paris, France, and in Figs. 212 and 213 are represented an elevation and plan of the running gear of a Jeantaud coupe but is not the
arrangement shown in the cab and coupe, Figs. 210 and 211, which are driven by chain and sprocket wheels on the differential gear shaft.
This allows of a fixed axle and eliminates the complication of a differential gear on a revolving axle. For these carriages a bipolar motor of 3 1/2 horse power, with shunt and series field coils, are used, which gives speeds from 3 to ii miles per hour. The 44 battery cells weigh 880 pounds. The elevation and plan of the driving and steering gear. Figs. 212 and 213, is peculiar, as the transmission is through a set of three bevel gears at each side in order to get around a centrally located steering pivot and to make drivers of the steering wheels.
The patin dog cart.
This French electric vehicle is somewhat a novelty in its general appearance, and in the transmitting and regulating gear.
In Fig. 214 is illustrated a general view. The steering is by a two-part vertical spindle, with one wheel for steering and the other for operating the controller .
The side lever, with a latch, is for changing the speed gear, and the rear longer one is the brake lever. The storage battery is reported as a new one, but not described. The driving gear, Fig. 215, has one intermediary spur, geared to the compensating gear. The motor pinion is a multiple V friction, with two intermediary friction change gears.
The driving is by a two-part shaft bearing in an offset a fixed shaft which carries the motor and change gear. The brake pulleys are fixed to the wheel hubs, and the springs clipped to the offset shaft.
The offset shaft or bar is opened horizontally into an oval to receive the compensating gear, having one each of its beveled gears fixed to the inner ends of the driving shafts, which are also journaled to bearings on the oval part of the offset shaft.
The motor shaft is supported by arms from the field poles. and carries a rimmed pulley, concentric with which are three or four loose fitting leather rings (Fig. 216). Two other pulleys of different diameters carry gears and are mounted on an oscillating frame, so that the gears are at all times in mesh with the main gear of the differential casing, while either of the pulleys themselves can be brought
up hard against the leather rings on the motor pulley, being driven by the friction therewith. The frame of the friction change gear is pivoted on the driving shafts, and carries two pinions that are in constant mesh with the spur wheel of the compensating gear, shown by the large radius dotted line. The friction pinion of the
motor is shown within the triangular space of the frame; the link rod being pivoted to a lug on the frame. This rather complicated arrangement makes it possible to change the speed-reduction ratio, or to throw the load on the motor after the latter has attained full speed. In this way a sudden pull can be obtained of much greater intensity than the motor would otherwise be capable of. There is no danger of breaking gear teeth, as the gears never separate.
The motor is series wound, and further speed variations are obtained by changing the number of field windings by the intervention of a controller. The usual band and shoe brakes are present, and the reverse connection is also used as a brake.
The barrow electric tricycle.
A novelty in electric appliances of power for operating a light vehicle is found in the Barrow tricycle (Fig. 217). In this vehicle the motor is carried on the fork of the steer
ing wheel, which has an internal toothed spur gear in which the pinion of the motor meshes. The storage battery is placed under the seat of the vehicle and wired to the motor with a flexible loop at the fork swivel. A vertical motion of the steering handle Fig. 2i7.—Barrow operates a brake. The controller Tricycle. js piaced under the seat and operated by a lever at the side.
Vehicles of the united states automobile company, attlf.boro, mass.
In Fig. 218 is represented a new departure in the design and arrangement of the electric motive power which has many points of advantage worthy of notice.
The outline of the carriage body conforms more to the usual forms of the present style of the horse vehicle, but if extended at the rear gives room for storage so little thought of in motor vehicles. The battery is suspended underneath the carriage body, thereby getting the centre of gravity low. The carriage body is suspended on light, independent springs.
The electric motor is mounted in the centre line of the rear shaft No compensating gear is used. The motor is of a new construction, in which both the field and armature revolve, one of the driving wheels being fastened to the field and the other to the armature, giving the necessary flexibility in rotation of the wheels. The brake, which is applied to the hubs of the wheels, is of the ordinary band type. The weight of this carriage is about 2,000 pounds, the accumulator weighing 1,120 pounds. The accumulator consists of 40 cells, giving about 80 volts when fully charged. The motor shaft revolves about i,000 turns at the highest speed, carriage being geared to 71. The carriage has three forward speeds, of three, six and twelve miles, and two backward speeds of three and six miles. One charge is sufficient for a 30-mile run. It is provided with volt and ammeter combined.
The steering is by lever connections with hub pivoted gear. The wheels are of the wire suspension type with three-inch pneumatic tires.
Electric broughams and cabs.
The electric broughams and cabs of the Electric Vehicle Co., now extensively in use in the City of New York, are operated by two electric motors, one to each forward wheel with its pinion meshed in an internal spur gear attached to each wheel.
The axles are both fixed and attached to the vehicle body by springs, the rear axle carrying the steering gear, which is of the knuckle type, and operated by the lever in front of the driver's seat.
The wheels are novel—being composed of sheet iron disks, dished with their convex sides outward and closing on a wooden rim on which is fixed a crescent steel rim to receive the tire.
Fig. 219 represents a very clear front view, and Fig. 220 a side view in outline of the brougham.
Beneath the driver's seat, laid horizontally, is the controller , with its lever rising on the outside and at the left of the driver.
The brake is operated by a lever and catch-rack through pull rods with levers below the body of the brougham, to a pair of pulley straps with friction on pulleys fixed to the
motor shafts. The motors a:c held by a spring link to the body of the vehicle.
The battery jars are of hard rubber, within which the plates arc separated by perforated and corrugated hard rubber sheets to lessen the splash of the acid—and the whole fitted into a tray to facilitate the removal of the whole battery at once.
The tray is lined with lead, with a waste spout which prevents any spilled acid from injuring the carriage. The battery equipment complete weighs about 1,200 pounds.
The controller is arranged for three speeds, with a reversing switch.
An emergency switch is also provided to be operated for connecting the main current in case of derangement of the controller. The motors are four polar, rated at 2 horse power each, at 700 revolutions per minute, giving the highest vehicle speed of i2 miles per hour.
The controller is fitted with a separate but interlocking reversing switch, so that the three speed positions apply to either forward or backward running. No magnetic blowout is used with this controller, and each contact is made doubly certain by the use of two independent contact fingers in each division. The speed variation is obtained by means of a division of the battery into two groups, which may be placed in series or multiple, the third or highest speed being obtained by a rearrangement of the series field coils of the two motors from a series to a multiple combination
(see Fig. 221). In the main circuit there is also what is called an emergency switch, in such a position that the driver can strike it with his heel and open the main circuit in case for any reason the controller becomes inoperative. The batteries are placed beneath the driver's seat and over the driving wheels, thus throwing the greatest weight upon the drivers. The panel doors in front, beneath the foot board, make a most convenient entrance to the battery box for changing the batteries, which consists of 48 cells of chloride accumulators of the motor vehicle type.
The Hansom cabs of the New York Electrical Vehicle Company have been placed in a firm foothold of patronage, and with the improvements suggested by experience may be considered a fixture in New York cab service. They are illustrated in Figs. 222 and 223.
Vehicles of the general electric automobile company, philadelphia, pa.
In Figs. 224 and 225 we illustrate some of the vehicles built by this company. The phaetons for physicians and pleasure riding are in design between a doctor's carriage and a Stanhope, consisting a seat for two persons, with handsome upholstery and cushions side and back. The battery compartment extends under the seat and backward, with a drop-hinged door at
the rear. Handsome lamps, both for electric light and candles, are provided on the sides of the body. The running gear consists of two large rear and two smaller front wheels, all of wood, and having solid rubber tires. The front axletree is carried upon springs secured to special iron extensions from the body, and the wheels are turned for steering by knuckle joints or side pivots, and moved by a steering ever extending upward through the body near the dasher, and leading backward toward the seat. The rear axle is also fixed and carried by a similar set of springs. The wheels are all furnished with bad bearings. These vehicles are designed to give a light-weight effect, and rich yet simple design. The brougham is but very little larger than ordinary types of fine carriages of thisclasb. In general design it does not differ materially from the best styles of Rogers or Brewster makes, with the exception of the front running gear.
which is made similar to that of the phaeton, but heavier. In this vehicle the knuckle-jointed axle or individual wheel pivot is preferred instead of the fifth-wneel because of lightness , cheapness, quicker steering and improved design. The front wheels are smaller than the rear wheels, as is customary . The axle boxes are provided with roller bearings.
The eye is not offended by any abnormal changes in design from that it is accustomed to seeing, the company believing that any radical changes in design should come by degrees to avoid public aversion to riding in objectionably conspicuous vehicles. The motors are located under the rear portion of the body and geared to the large rear wheels. The batteries are placed within a compartment under the floor of the body, but so shielded and worked into the structure of the carriage that it is not perceptible. This result is secured by having a false floor and making the doors fit down over the sides of the battery compartment. The front projection upon which the operator's seat is located is arched in form, just as in the modern brougham, and the controller is placed out of view under the seat. The battery compartment has the bottom hinged to drop on the forward end, and permits the batteries and the trays to be withdrawn or inserted. When in position the bottom is raised and locked in place. The construction makes the vehicle somewhat shorter geared than a horse brougham of the same size.
The electrical equipment of these vehicles consists of the following: There are 44 cells of battery coupled in such a manner that for all normal work the cells are maintained in series, but for certain work, as in mounting very steep and short grades, or starting exceptionally large loads, the cells may be temporarily arranged in two sets, and these put in parallel. The batteries are automatically coupled up with the motor circuits on the vehicle, through the media of contact switches, by simply sliding the trays into the compartments . While the batteries are adapted to be removed from the vehicle for charging, sockets are provided for attachment plugs, so that the batteries may be charged while in place, and these plugs are so constructed that it is impossible to make a wrong connection or reverse the polarity. The motors are two in number and develop 2 horse power each on normal running, but may be worked up to twice that power at 800 revolutions per minute for a considerable period without excessive heating. They are four-polar, with the armature shaft carried in roller bearings, and operate on eighty volts. The field windings are divided into two coils, so that those of each motor may be thrown in series or multiple. The motors are hinged to the rear axle near the outer ends thereof, and are supported from the vehicle body. The armature shafts extend close to the wheels, and are fitted with pinions of 31-inch diameter, working on annular gears of 22-inch diameter, fastened to the spoke arms. The gears are of phosphor bronze and carefully cut. The ratio is 1 to 6.28.
The controller is placed under the floor of the phaetons, and under the operator's seat on the box in the broughams, and is operated by a hand lever. It is of the series-multiple type, adapted to give four speeds and one brake position. The first notch puts the two motors in series with the fieldmagnet coils also in series. The second notch maintains the armatures in series, but with the two sets of field coils of each motor in each multiple. The third notch throws the two motors in parallel, but connects the two field coils of each motor in series. The fourth notch maintains the motors in parallel, but also throws the two field coils of each motor in parallel. The brake is set by moving the controller lever the other way, and throws the fields and armatures all in series on a short circuit, causing the machines to act as braking dynamos. This is only resorted to in case of emergency or in descending steep grades. A foot brake is provided when desired for ordinary uses. In all of the working notches, one to four, of the controller the batteries are connected with all of the cells in series, giving a maximum voltage of 88. On the fourth or parallel notch the speed is i9.8 miles per hour. In addition to the series-multiple controller there is an electric switch for throwing the battery cells in two series of 22 cells each, and these two in parallel with each other; and this is employed in connection with the parallel arrangement of the motors, namely, the third and fourth notches when the internal resistance and counter electromotive force is lowest. This connection is only used in starting heavy loads or climbing steep grades.
In addition to these switches for controlling the speed and braking there is a separate hand-controlled switch to reverse the armature connections for running backward. In the phaeton these various switches and the controller lever are arranged at the left-hand side of the seat and extend up through the side rail and in convenient reach. This enables the operator to sit on the side adjacent to the middle of the road, and to see more clearly for steering and avoiding collision with passing vehicles.
The delivery wagons are provided with a fifth-wheel steering gear on the front wheels, controlled by a small hand wheel on horizontal axis and operating through gearing a worm or tangent screw, which works in a worm gear segment fixed to the pivoted axle. This method of steering delivery wagons is preferred, because by it the axle is always locked, and excessive strains and jars cannot come upon the operator. It is found by experience that this steering gear works most satisfactorily. It furthermore enables the most approved customary type of spring-body support to be employed, which is deemed advisable, and especially so for vehicles required to carry heavy loads. The batteries are arranged in trays, and placed within a compartment under the rear of the body, and furnished with a spring floor to reduce the jarring upon the battery when traveling over rough roads or crossing railroad tracks. The wheels are fitted with anti-friction bearings, and the rear wheels are independently driven by separate motors. The wheels are of wood, wit»h solid rubber tires.
The electric automobile ambulance.
The electric automobile ambulance shown in Fig. 226 was built by F. R. Wood & Son, of New York City, for St. Vincent's Hospital. It is handsome in appearance, being well finished. The openings are all inclosed with beveled plate glass windows, which open or close with ease. The vehicle is steered from the front wheels, and is propelled by two 2horse power motors, which are suspended on the rear axle. The current for the motors is supplied by 44 cells of storage batteries, and it is managed by a controller placed und-er the seat entirely out of view. This controller permits of three speeds ahead, 6, 9 and i3 miles per hour, and two speeds to the rear, 3 and 6 miles per hour. The radius of action of the ambulance is 25 to 30 miles.
The Wood pedestal gear is used, making it possible to have the body low, which is essential in an ambulance, and adds to its appearance. All the fore and aft bending strain on the springs is relieved by the pedestals sliding vertically up and down on the pedestal box. The driver is in immediate communication with the surgeon by the aid of a speaking-tube. The inside trimming is of leather, and the bed slides out, and being caught by irons, stands out parallel with the sidewalk, thus enabling a patient to be placed upon the bed without the necessity of being jolted, 'which is inseparable to the use of stationary beds. The inside and outside electric lights are of ten-candle power each. The mountings are all of brass. The ambulance service in our American cities is the
model one of the world, so that it is little wonder that we are to have what is probably the first electric ambulance, certainly the one we illustrate is the first ever built in the United States. There are many reasons why an automobile ambulance has marked advantages over the horse vehicles.
It is capable of greater sustained speed, and when the destination is reached no care has to be paid to the steaming horse, and both surgeon and driver can devote their attention to the injured person. Accidents to ambulances are of frequent occurrence, owing to their speed and their right of way, but electric vehicles can be stopped in their length. Every second is of importance to an injured person, and speed and ease of riding will undoubtedly soon make them a great favorite among hospital authorities. Another feature of interest is the lower cost of maintenance. An ambulance is usually idle twenty or more hours out of the twentyfour , and this gives ample time for charging the batteries.
There is no time lost in hitching up, and the stable may be in the hospital proper, without the dangers of stable odors.
The waverly electric motor vehicles.
We illustrate, in Figs. 227, 228 and 229, the electric motor carriages of the Indiana Bicycle Company, Indianapolis, Ind. The bicycle experience of this company has enabled them to build their carriage frames largely on bicycle principles , with cold drawn steel tubing and brazed joint fittings , giving a rigidity to the frame not to be obtained with riveted or screwed joints. The wheels are wire spoked for light vehicles and with ball bearings. The motor is of the multipolar type, and is rigidly hung to the running gear. The motor shaft is geared directly to the two rear wheels. Each rear wheel is made to revolve independently of the other by compensating gears upon the motor shaft.
Three sizes of motors are used according to the weights of the vehicles, viz., one and one-half horse power for the runabout, two and one-half for the phaeton and Stanhope, and three and one-half horse power for the delivery wagon. The battery consists of 44 non-polarization cells varying in capacity from 60 to i25 amperes; the lightest weighing about 9 pounds per cell.
They are arranged in four trays of eleven cells each, and are charged with a ii0-volt current. A Wattmeter is placed convenient for observing the discharge of the battery, enabling the operator to see at a glance the amount of energy in store. A lever for starting and regulating the speed is placed at the left side of the seat and connected with the controller beneath. A push button on the top of the controller lever gives the reverse motion.
Each vehicle has five speeds forward and three backward ; the forward speeds varying from three to fourteen miles per hour. The steering is by a lever and shaft linked to the pivoted arms of each wheel, giving an easy and natural motion for the hand in guiding the vehicles. A band brake on the periphery of the compensating gear drum is operated by the foot on a pedal on the floor of the vehicle. A safety lock switch is provided to prevent meddling when the vehicle is left alone.
Their runabout, Fig. 227, is intended for two persons, but has an emergency seat for two more. It is finished in elegant style, weighs about i,200 pounds, and has a radius of 35 miles to one battery charge.
The Stanhope or phaeton, Fig. 228, is a most convenient and comfortable carriage for touring or for a physician. It has a 2\ horse power motor, with suitable battery for a
radius of 40 miles, with a speed of from 12 to 14 miles per hour. Fig. 229 is a combination wagon for parcel delivery, with a running gear and frame similar to the Stanhope, and of the same power. The parcel hood is removable, as shown in the lower right hand corner of the cut, when a very styl
ish runabout or pleasure carriage is at hand, as shown in the upper right hand corner of the cut. This company also make a brougham, equipped with a 3 1/2 horse power motor and a 44-cell battery of i20-ampere hour capacity. It is a stylish carriage, with a removable rear seat, and for winter use is provided with an electrical heater.
Fig. 230 illustrates the Waverly merchandise delivery wagon, a heavier and more powerful vehicle than usual, with a 3^ horse power motor, and a radius of 40 miles, with a speed of from 8 to i2 miles per hour. The wheels are strong, of the wood spoke pattern, with pneumatic tires.
The columbia electric vehicles.
Prominently among American motor vehicle builders may be mentioned the Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company,
Hartford, Conn., whose vehicles are manufactured for the Electric Vehicle Company, i00 Broadway, New York City. This company, by virtue of long continued experimentation in the direction of mechanical road traction, has been able to place upon the market vehicles which from the very first have been commercially successful, and have proved popular.
Among these, the first style of carriage produced, known as Mark III., Fig. 23i, has come to be generally recognized as almost a standard type of American electric vehicle. This carriage, in its latest design, is a hooded phaeton, with detachable rumble behind. It is superbly finished in black, with panels of green, and upholstered in dark green wulfing cloth. The body is mounted by means of transverse springs on a rectangular frame of steel tubing, from which is hung, just ahead of the rear axle, a single 25 ampere motor, which
in turn is connected through the customary balance gear to two driving shafts terminating in pinions, the latter meshing with external gears attached to the wheels. The wheel base of this carriage is 65^ inches; the gauge, 54 inches. The wheels are of wire suspension type, 32 and 36 inches in diameter, equipped with 3-inch pneumatic tires. Steering is effected by means of the usual individually pivoted front wheels. By the manipulation of the controller handle at the left of the operator, three speeds ahead, equivalent to 3,6 and i2 miles per hour, and two backward speeds may be
obtained. The battery, consisting of 44 chloride cells, has a capacity of 75 ampere hours at a three-hour rate, giving a mileage of 35 miles over ordinary roads. The total weight of the finished vehicle is 2,570 pounds.
Another well-known style of pleasure carriage, made by this company, is the dos-a-dos, designated as Mark VI., Fig. 232. The body of this vehicle, of stylish appearance, is mounted by fore-and-aft elliptic springs, over axles which are connected by rear bars. A single 30-ampere motor is employed, connected through a balance gear and single gear reduction to the rear wheels. The latter are of wire, 32 and 36 inches in diameter, and provided with 3-inch cushion pneumatic tires. The battery consists of 44 cells, and when discharged in three hours will furnish 90 ampere hours, equivalent to a mileage over ordinary roads of 35 miles. The maximum speed is about ii miles per hour.
In the Mark VI., Daumon Victoria. Fig. 233, a somewhat radical departure from the lines usually followed in motor vehicle building has been made. The battery is carried in the Daumon boxes, one-half directly over the front axle and half over the rear axle. The vehicle is operated from the driver's seat at the rear, the passengers being thus enabled to obtain an unobstructed view ahead. This seat also accommodates a footman. The usual features, including individual pivotal steering by front wheels, single motor operating , through balance gear and single gear reduction, and controller, affording three speeds by means of different groupings of the battery, are employed. The carriage weighs 3,250 pounds, and is capable of a mileage of 30 miles per charge, and the maximum speed of ii^ miles per hour.
Their delivery wagon is built with a special view to severe city delivery service. The finish of the main panel is black, the center panel velvet brown, and the lowest panel maroon. The wheels are of wood, 36-inch forward and 42-inch rear, and are equipped with 2 1/2-inch Kelly solid tires. The two axles are braced to the body by means of jack bolts, no reaches being used. The 40-ampere motor, spring suspended just ahead of the rear axle, has bolted to it at each end a cast iron housing, completely enclosing and protecting the balance gear and other working parts, and normally develops about 3$ horsepower. The battery compartment, containing 44 cells, is depressed several inches below the merchandise compartment, allowing a carrying space of approximately 4 feet by 3^ feet by 6 feet clear, and designed to carry a total dead load of i,000 pounds. The average mileage per battery charge is 25 miles.
The Mark XI., Brougham-de-luxc, Fig. 234, intended for private use, is finished and upholstered in accordance with the most approved usage. It is rear driven by a single 40ampere motor, the construction used being similar to that employed on the delivery wagon described above; steered by means of the front wheels from a driver's seat ahead, and controlled by the usual three-speed controller and footoperated band brake. Half of the battery of 44 cells is placed beneath the driver's seat, and half carried in a compartment above the rear axle. The cells used have a capacity of i00 ampere hours, and propel the carriage about 28 miles per charge, the maximum speed being about i2 miles per hour. Wooden wheels, 36 and 42 inches in diameter , are used, provided with 2 1/2-inch Kelly solid rubber tires. The interior is finely upholstered with the best materials, and equipped with the most modern conveniences of urban travel, including coach clock, reading light, driver's signal, etc. Two other popular styles of vehicle are the small Victoria, Fig. 236, and Runabout, Fig. 237, termed Mark XII. The
two carriages are similar in point of running gear and electrical equipment, but the bodies are dissimilar, conforming to two well-known existing types of horse-drawn vehicles, the Victoria being intended for ladies' pleasure and park driving, and the runabout for general business and pleasure driving. Both are comfortably upholstered and finely finished,—the former in a bright automobile red or dark green,—the latter in dark green. These vehicles are equipped with 28-inch wire wheels, front and rear, provided with 3-inch pneumatic tires. The short wheel base of about five feet, and their comparatively light weight, make them very easy of manipulation, while their mileage of about 30 miles per charge renders them available for a variety of purposes where a small carriage is required. The single motor, rated at 20 amperes, is swung from the rear axle, and uses current from the battery of 44 cells, located in the carriage body, and furnishing about 45 ampere hours. Three speeds, 3 1/2, 7 and i4 miles per hour are provided. These carriages, together with all vehicles produced by this company, are equipped with combination volt and ampere meters, of great value to the operator in observing the performance of the carriage, and effectually preventing an undue exhaustion of the batteries. These vehicles weigh about i,900 pounds each.
The Mark XI. Omnibus, Fig. 235., will accommodate ten passengers inside and three on the top seat outside, besides the occupants of the driver's seat. The inside compartment is entered from the rear by means of two steps, and is upholstered in dark green leather, with morocco finish. The windows are provided with silk shades, and the work is finished in cherry, ash and whitewood. The interior is equipped with electric lamps, signal buttons, and other modern conveniences . The wheel base of this vehicle is 8 feet, and the wheel gauge 5 1/2 feet. The wheels are 36-inch front and 42inch rear, and are equipped with 3^-inch Kelly solid rubber tires. Steering is accomplished by means of a lever, standing normally parallel to the driver's seat, and capable of a forward and backward movement. The customary foot-operated band brake is used, supplemented by an auxiliary tire brake applied to the rear wheels by a hand lever at the driver's left. The motor used, delivering normally 3^ to 4 horse power, but capable of temporary loads much greater, is bolted to housings containing the differential gear and other running parts, and is spring-suspended to relieve its supports of sudden strains. This omnibus has made over ordinary roads and hills a mileage of 32 miles on a single charge, and is capable of a speed of slightly over 9 miles per hour.
This company is continually producing new types of vehicles, of which the larger number are electrically propelled , although several varieties of gasoline carriages have already been built.
Automobiles of the american electric vehicle company.
We illustrate seven of the vehicles of this company who are now located at i34 West 38th street, New York City. The runabout top buggy for two persons, Fig. 238, with pneumatic tires; motor, 2 1/2 horse-power; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 36 inch diameter.
The break, Fig. 239, for four persons, with a motor of 4 horse power; wheels with wooden spokes, 34 and 36 inch diameter, and pneumatic tires. The Dos-a-Dos, Fig. 240, for four persons. Motor, 4 horse power; wooden spoke wheels, 34 and 38 inches, with solid rubber tires. The mail phaeton, Fig. 241, for four persons. Motor, 4
horse power; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches, with solid rubber tires.
The top surrey, Fig. 242, for four persons. Motor, 4 horse power; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches with solid rubber tires. The six-passenger break, Fig. 243. Motor, 5 horse power; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches, with solid rubber tires.
The delivery wagon, Fig. 244, 8 feet long, 44 inches wide, 48 inches high inside. Wooden spoke wheels, 34 and 36 inches, with solid rubber tires.
The feature of the American Company's construction, a construction that it was the first to use, is the single reduction motor with hollow armature shaft and a single motor equipment. By this hollow shaft construction all need of a divided driving shaft is done away with to give greater strength at this essential point. This company is the pioneer in its line and,.always in the lead, it is now making a better vehicle than ever before. The storage battery used has reached the up-to-date limit as a combination of powerful, light and compact design and construction.
One charging will run a vehicle 35 to 50 miles; very few private carriages would ever be subjected to such a test. The cost of running is about one cent a mile. The batteries can be recharged in the carriage, and in about three hours' time, shutting off automatically when filled. Where a direct current is not available, or where a large independent plant can be used to advantage, as with a private lighting plant, the running expense per mile can be greatly reduced. The vehicles are furnished with a combination meter, by means of which the operator estimates the mileage capacity yet remaining in storage.
The storage batteries consist of 42 accumulators in hard rubber cells, tightly sealed, with lug connections burned together. Only the best rolled lead is used, and the motor is a combination of power, capacity and durability with light, compact construction.
The maximum speeds of the vehicles vary according to their purpose, and can, in each case, be regulated to meet the demands of the road—two to twelve or fifteen miles an hour. This is controlled by a lever convenient to the operator's left hand. Powerful band brakes, operated by a foot lever, hold the carriage quickly and firmly on any grade. With his right hand the operator uses the steering lever, the slightest pressure of which is sufficient to place the vehicle exactly where he desires. A ball-and-socket connection prevents the vibration of this lever in his hand. Differential gearing adjusts the speeds of the rear wheels in turning corners. To reverse the motion of the carriage requires but the turn of a little lever at the driver's seat. This is small enough to carry in the pocket, and when removed cuts off the current, thus, so to say, tying up the vehicle. The motive power makes available brilliant electric lamps which add to the safety and beauty of the family carriage, while the electrically illuminated wagon sign, now made possible, recommends itself at once to business men.
Vehicles of the riker electric vehicle company, elizabethport, n. j.
The Riker system of electric power for vehicles is illustrated in the phaeton, Fig. 245, and the Victoria, Fig. 246, each having tangent wire spoke wheels, 32 inches diameter front, and 36 inches diameter rear, which are the driving wheels. A single 1 1/2 K. W. motor is enclosed in a tight metal case; one side is clamped firmly to the axle casing, the other side is loosely secured on a vertical rod, but clamped between
two spiral springs inclosing the rod in order to compensate for the sudden thrust or strain put upon the motor when the current is quickly applied, either for going forward or backward. The pinion of the motor is made of rawhide edged with metal, and meshes into the large gear driving wheel on the axle. These vehicles have three speeds ahead and two to the
rear, with a maximum speed of 12 miles per hour, and a total mileage of 25 miles with one charge. They are provided with electric side lights, a combination ammeter and voltmeter in sight on the dashboard. Weight about 1,800 pounds each. Wheel base, 63 inches ; tread, 50 inches. The Runabout, Fig. 247, is a lighter vehicle, with 28-inch front, and 32-inch rear wheels; base, 50 inches; tread, 48 inches ; weight, 1,300 pounds. Two motors, of 1 K. W. each, are geared to a spur wheel on each hub, having three speeds forward and two to the rear. A maximum speed of i0 miles per hour, with a total mileage of 25 miles per each charge. Electric side lights, a combination volt and ammeter completes the rig. The Dos-a-Dos, Fig. 248, has the same general dimensions
of running gear as the phaeton and Victoria, with a 56-inch tread, and weighs 2,500 pounds. It is driven by a 2 K. W. motor with the same speeds and mileage as the phaeton. The Surrey, Fig. 249, is built on similar lines of running gear; a longer wheel base, 74 inches, and tread, 56 inches. They are operated by a 2 K. W. motor, controlled for four
speeds ahead, and two speeds to the rear. Their maximum speed is i6 miles per hour, with a total mileage of 25 miles. The storage battery is in two parts, one under each seat, consisting each of two crates or boxes, containing, in the whole, 44 Willard storage cells, size 3 3/4 x 5 9/16 x 9 5/8 inches high, with a total weight of about 950 pounds. The Brougham and Demi coaches. Figs. 250 and 25i, have
depressed frames to accommodate a low floor; solid rubber tires on wood spoke wheels; a suitable and strong construction for their weight, which is 4,000 and 4,200 pounds, respectively. Wheel base, 80 inches; tread, 59 inches. Each vehicle has two motors of 2 K. W. each, with the same controller speeds as stated before, and with a total mileage of 25 miles. Maximum speed, i0 miles per hour. The Theater bus, Fig. 252, is a still more substantial and weighty vehicle, having 2 1/2-inch solid tires on wood spoke wheels, 36 and 44 inches in diameter, with a 66-inch wheel base. Tread, 58 inch front; 68 inch rear. Weight, 5,500 pounds. A carrying capacity of i3 passengers and driver. Electric lights within. Two motors of 2 K. W. each, geared direct to large spur
gears on the hubs, are controlled at the same speeds and mileage as the Brougham and Demi coach. The Delivery Wagon, Fig. 253, is of a half ton capacity, in addition to driver and delivery man. Weighs 3,600 pounds. Has 2-inch solid tires on wood spoke wheels, 38 and 42 inch, with a wheel base of 68 inches, and 59-inch tread. The (wo motors are 2 K. W., each geared to spur wheels on the hubs. The speeds are three ahead and two to rear, with a maximum speed of 9 miles per hour, and a total mileage of 30 miles.
The Riker Company also build a truck, Fig. 254, in which the battery is carried in an enclosed box beneath the floor of the vehicle. They are driven by two 3 K. W. motors, geared to spur wheels on the rear axle hubs
In the lighter vehicles driven by a single motor, the rear axle is constructed in two parts. One is a solid axle attached rigidly to one rear wheel, while the other end is connected by a differential gear in the hub of the other wheel with the tubular driving axle, both being encased in a stationary tubular axle and run on roller bearings. The solid and tubular axles both revolve together ordinarily, except when turning curves; then, by means of this gear, one may rotate slower or faster than the other. Such construction permits the vehicle readily to turn small circles and curves. Fig. 255 represents a Riker delivery wagon hub deep in the snow; they have proved themselves fully equal to horses in a snowstorm.
In the wiring of the Riker system the insulated wires lead from the terminals of the battery to the controller located under the front seat just ahead of the battery, which controller is in the form of a cylinder having a number of contact plates on its surface separated by insulating material on which bear brass springs severally connected with the battery in such a way that in one position of the cylinder only a few cells will operate, or in another so that they will be arranged in parallel, or in another in series, or in another for reversal of the direction of the current.
On the left hand end of the controller cylinder is a small cogwheel which meshes with a segment gear forming the lower end of the reciprocating controller lever standing in a vertical position between the cushions and the seat. The movement of this lever forward rotates the cylinder and puts on the current of varying degrees of quantity and intensity, according to the speed desired. There is a ratcnet
wheel adjoining the pinion of the cylinder on which a spring pawl acts as a temporary friction lock, holding the cylinder in whatever position it is placed, yet yielding to the motion of the lever when forced forward or backward by the hand. Pushing the lever forward one notch, or click of the spring below, gives a very slow speed of 2 to 3 miles an hour; to the second notch, 6 to 7 miles an hour; to the third notch, i0 to 12 miles an hour; to the fourth notch, i5 miles an hour. By drawing the lever back to the vertical position the current is thrown off. Running the length ot the lever is a latch rod terminating at the upper end of the handle. To reverse the current for backing, this rod is pressed downward with the thumb at the top of the handle, which permits the controller to rotate in the opposite direction. Two different speeds
for backing may be used. Thus ono lever is used for a forward or backward movement. The driver sits on the left hand side of the seat, operating the driving lever with the right hand and the steering lever with the lett. The steering shaft rises vertically through the bottom of the carriage, just in front of the driving lever, and is hinged so that the upper part can lie in a horizontal position, either to the right or the left.
An electric push button is inserted in the handle connected with a signal electric bell, attached to the underside of the bottom of the carriage, at the front. The signal is sounded by pressing the button with the thumb of the left hand. Under the left hand end of the front seat is a special safety switch for completely cutting off the current. At the opposite end is another switch for the electric dash lamps observed on each side. Beside this switch is a threeknife switch which is turned down for charging.
The vertical steering shaft is connected underneath the carriage by a crank and rod with one end of an interior movable hollow hub, around which the front wheel runs on ball bearings; the hub is pivoted on its interior to the carriage frame. Another connecting cross rod extends from this hub to the same style of hub on the opposite side. So that the movement of one hub by the steering shaft operates the other in the same direction, both moving parallel to each other. This enables the steering to be done very easily.
The carriage frame which supports the springs is built of strong steel tubing, well braced and jointed. The foot brake lever projects slightly above the floor, and has side notches for holding the lever in any position it may be placed. From this lever under the carriage, the brake rod extends to a band brake wheel secured on the rear tubular propelling shaft adjoining the large gear wheel, also keyed on the same shaft. To exclude dust, these are covered by a metal casing.
An additional safety hand brake is provided, the lever of which will be seen just inside the front seat of the surrey, Fig. 249. By the side of the main gear and within the same case is a pulley on which acts a band brake, besides which shoe or spoon brakes are also fitted to the rear tires. The " Jack-in-the-Box," differential, or compensating gear, to give its various names, is located inside one of the cylindrical hubs, its four intermediate bevel pinions being driven by a sleeve from the main gear meshing with the motor pinion. This gives a solid inner axle clear from this hub to the hub of the other wheel, instead of' an axle divided at the compensating gear, as is the case with most other vehicles. Ball bearings are used in the lighter vehicles and roller bearings in the heavier. The steering is effected by the usual hub pivot arrangement, the pivots being placed, however, within the hollow hubs of the forward wheels. These pivots are vertical, and with cone-shaped ends. A proper increased deviation of the inside wheel when turning is obtained by the non-parallelism of the pivot cranks.
Perhaps the most interesting features of these vehicles are the ingenious details of the controlling mechanism. The ordinary cylindrical controller under the seat is used, giving by means of a series-multiple combination of the batteries three speeds forward and two to the rear. In the main circuit is an automatic circuit breaker, which opens in case the motor is given more than 400 per cent. overload. This is reset simply by restoring the controller handle to the off position. On the footboard or dashboard is a combined voltmeter and ammeter, showing at all times the pressure of the cells and the load on the mechanism. An automatic switch in the charging circuit prevents the connection of the batteries with the wrong polarity, and cuts off the batteries when fully charged.
The electric tricycle is rather interesting, as it is one of the lightest vehicles yet developed and weighs only 800 pounds. It has a 4-foot wheel base and a 4-foot tread, with wheels 28 inches in diameter, fitted with 2 1/2-inch pneumatic tires. The motor is rigidly suspended, meshing directly with a gear on" the hub of the single rear wheel, the steering being effected by the usual forward hub pivots. The motor is rated at i horse power at 40 volts, and weighs about 60 pounds, the gear ratio being 8 to i.
In Fig. 256 is represented the running gear of the Riker system of electric vehicles. The frame is of steel tubing with
ball bearings on the hollow driving shaft, which extends from hub to hub with the compensating gear in one of the hubs. The motor, D, is pinioned to the spur gear and band brake pulley, which are keyed to the hollow shaft. The motor and gear box are attached to the sleeves, D' which enclose the hollow shaft and connect with the tubular side bars, C, C' The cross bar, D', serves to bind the side bars, and as a sus. pension bar for the motor. The steering is a novelty, as the pivot is located within the hubs and in the plane of the center bearing of the wheels.
The compensating gear, Fig. 257, is within the hub, has its yoke carrier, G, G, made fast on the hollow driving shaft, B, and carries with it the two bevel pinions on the studs, gt. The bevel gear, G' is keyed to the inner sleeve of the wheel hub, H. The bevel gear, C, is keyed to an inner solid shaft, B', which extends across to and is fast to the hub of the opposite wheel. A loose flange, H' holds the shell of the hub to the end bearing of the hollow driving shaft, B. A
nut and washer, not shown in cut, retain the inner shaft from end thrust. The great advantage of this arrangement is, that both the hollow and the central solid shaft extend across from hub to hub, forming a strong axle, and avoiding the weakness and trouble given by a divided axle.
In Fig. 258 is illustrated another feature of the Riker system , the center-pivoted steering wheel. The front axle. A, is rigid, with its end encased by a cylindrical box, K, and pivoted thereto by the vertical bolt, A"t, with a shoulder, k', supported by ball bearings. The cylindrical box, K, carries the wheel hub, N, in ball bearings. An extension of the cylinder through the open end of the hub terminates in the steering link connections.
Storage batteries and generators.
The storage battery is no doubt destined to occupy a permanent place as a propelling power in all electrically driven automobiles. A large number of people interested in stored power are looking forward to a revolution in the generating power of storage batteries, and it is the opinion of many that the long-looked-for, light weight, high capacity battery will soon be discovered. It is also the opinion of many that the storage battery art is new; which of course is not true, as the invention of the storage battery was contemporaneous with that of the dynamo electric machine. Storage batteries which have been invented, placed on the market and failed are numerous.
There are probably but few articles of manufacture which permit of so many variations in regard to mechanical structure or capacity. Within the last few years there have been vast improvements made, not so much in regard to capacity as to perfection in mechanical details. The successful automobile battery of to-day does not have near the capacity that some of the earlier types had, but the durability of the same is many times greater.
A storage battery could be put in some of tne present types of carriages that would operate the same for a distance of 200 miles on one charge on a level road. Any manufacturer of storage batteries, or any expert in the storage battery business, can furnish a battery having extremely high capacity and light weight, with consequent short life; therefore , all new and wonderful statements in regard to inventions in the storage battery line should be thoroughly investigated before being accepted as the real thing, but a thorough investigation cannot be made in a few days. Almost any kind of a battery will give good satisfaction for a few months, but the battery which will last several years is the one which is desirable.
A battery can be made of one-fourth the weight of the present standard type of vehicle batteries, and still have the same capacity; it must be borne in mind, however, that it is not possible to make a battery of high capacity having long life. A battery to have long life must have a certain amount of weight, and the makers of batteries which are used the most have placed this weight at a point which will allow of good durability.
To illustrate how light a battery might be made, we make a comparison between the present type of battery, which is most in use, and a battery made several years ago. The present type of battery gives about seven amperes per pound of positive plate; a battery made by Fitzgerald, in England, gives a capacity of i6 ampere hours per pound of plate. In making this into a battery by substituting zinc for the negatives the battery could be made one-fourth the weight of the present standard type. This battery, however , would be extremely short-lived, and would not be durable enough to be commercially successful.
Going further into the automobile, it is not the battery alone which makes a successful automobile, for much depends on the motor, controller, bearings and also the wiring of the different parts. A drop of one or two volts has often been found in the controller alone. All wiring in an electric automobile should be of generous size. For a carriage weighing 1,500 pounds, it should not be less than No. 4 wire. All controller contacts should be made with large surfaces, and all surfaces ground to a perfect contact. The knifeswitch principle is undoubtedly the best to use on a controller , as this allows the above-named advantages to be obtained.
As to' the proper generator to use for charging a set of batteries for automobile use, we would suggest that, where the straight i io-volt incandescent current is not at hand, a 2 1/2 horse power generator, wound and speeded for 120 volts, will charge a set of 40 or 44 batteries in series easily with a 25-ampere current. A 1 1o-volt generator cannot sustain 25 amperes after the batteries are over one-half charged, or when the counter electro-motive force of the batteries has reached to two and four- to five-tenths volts per cell; that is, the cell shows by the voltmeter 2.5 volts. The amperage will drop down to about 10 amperes. This may not be an objection if time is of little importance, but if the desire is to hasten charging and sustaining the current to about 20 to 25 amperes a i20-volt generator is needed. This forcing process is not approved, as much energy is absorbed in generating heat rather than the chemical changes necessary to the active material.
In order to charge one of our electric carriages in the manner which is considered the most expeditious and economical , a current is required which at a voltage of between no and ii5 will give from 30 to 46 amperes, depending on the size of the carriage and the capacity of the storage battery in it. Accordingly, if an owner of an electric automobile wishes to install an independent plant for the purpose alone of charging the vehicle, he would need a generator of a capacity of at least 3 kilowatts driven by a gasoline motor of 4 horse power. Such a motor, or perhaps one slightly larger, if properly installed, will furnish an electric light system for a country house, as well, also, to charge the storage battery of the family carriage.
The willard automobile batteries.
In Fig. 259 we illustrate a single cell of the Willard type for an automobile carriage battery. They are manufactured by Sipe & Sigler, Cleveland. Ohio The general value of the storage battery is dependent up
on the character and construction of the plates of which the elements are composed; and in this is found much of the merit of the Willard storage battery. The Willard plate, including the terminal, is constructed from a single sheet of pure rolled lead, every part of the finished product remaining integral with the original plate. On either side of the sheet of lead there are formed thin leaves or shelves about one-fourth inch wide and one thirty-second inch thick. These leaves remain attached to a web or support in the center, and incline upward with a curve at an angle of about 20 degrees, thus forming a uniform cup-shaped opening between them.
The rctive material is produced by electro-chemical means, uniformly on the surfaces of all of the leaves, and on the surfaces of the web until the interstices are filled. A special advantage in this automobile battery is found in the inclination of the leaves, by which the active material is held in place, as in automobile service this feature practically overcomes the washing action due to the movement of the electrolyte in the cells during the operation of the vehicle.
This battery is composed of the plates already described encased in a special design hard-rubber jar with a glass cover. The plates are separated from one another by an improved hard rubber separating sheath, which is corrugated , ribbed and slotted in such manner as to create absolutely no extra internal resistance in its use, and at the same time to so effectively separate the different elements as to entirely eliminate any probability of short circuits, thereby avoiding all abnormal disintegration. The voltage of these batteries is high, 2.6 volts per cell at lull charge. They should not be discharged below i5 volts per cell.
Each cell is covered by a glass plate, which permits an examination of the interior of the cell at all times and keeps in view the electrolyte, which is of the utmost importance in batteries used for this purpose, as in cells without the glass cover, great damage frequently occurs by the unnoticed evaporation of the electrolyte below the tops of the plates.
In Fig. 260 is illustrated a nest of storage batteries of the Willard type, consisting of 40 cells in four trays, with their binding posts for connecting them with the controller. They are equal to a total voltage at full charge of i04 volts, and at minimum discharge at a total of 60 volts. Among the cautions and directions sent with the batteries are the following: On receipt of battery, charge to 2.6 volts per cell at the eight-hour rate. Be sure that the electrolyte covers the plates at all times and in all cells.
Always open carriage body while charging the battery. Never light a match near the battery while charging. Never spark the battery while charging. Always recharge promptly after using the carriage. Avoid heating the cells in charging. Do not charge beyond 2.6 volts per cell at the eight-hour rate.
Overcharge for twelve hours at the low rate once each month. Replenish electrolyte for loss in ordinary use with 10 parts water and one part sulphuric acid. When loss is due to spilling in shipment use four parts water and one part sulphuric acid. Handle trays carefully—a short drop may break a cell.
the wlllard automobile storage Battery. A more complete and detailed direction for the management of these batteries is given in a booklet which may be obtained by addressing the manufacturers.
In Fig. 261 is illustrated a switchboard for charging an automobile battery from an electric lighting line, consisting of a fuse, an under-load switch connecting the negative current through the ammeter and double knife-switch to the negative pole of the batteries, which are connected in series. From the other side of the under-load switch the positive wire passes through the left side of the double knife-switch to the central element of the rheostat and from its element of greatest resistance to the positive pole of the battery. The voltmeter cuts the battery connections. The instruments as shown are all that are necessary where the current is direct. In such locations as the current is alternating, a rotary transformer will be required in addition to the instruments named on this switchboard.
The care of automobile storage batteries. by t. d. bunce.
In a general way the owner of an electric automobile should have a practical working knowledge of the motive power of his machine . Many annoying delays caused by slight accidents or by the power suddenly giving out would be avoided if the driver was more familiar with the construction and care of the mechanism within his vehicle. Perhaps a brief account of the care it should receive will be of assistance to those who appreciate the benefits they derive from their silent steed, but who know little or nothing about its make-up or needs.
The makers' directions shi.uld be followed in every particular as long as the battery operates successfully under normal conditions, and the maximum voltage can be obtained after the charge. When it is first seen that these conditions cannot be secured, it is better to consult a specialist in storage batteries, as there is no source of power so liable to injury by neglect as the automobile storage battery. The battery usually consists of from 40 to 44 cells, identical in construction. Each cell does its proportion of work, and when one is out of order, it means not only the loss of the work of this cell, but the throwing of the additional work on the others, as well as the ultimate destruction of the disabled one. It is now possible in New York City to call at a charging station, have your battery tested and a report made as to its condition on blanks especially prepared for this purpose. If any defect is found it may be remedied at once, or the defective cell or cells removed and repaired without interfering with the operation of the automobile.
It is rarely found that all the cells are at the same voltage, especially after they have been discharged to any extent. It is frequently found that a battery giving its full voltage at the start will have one or more cells drop down as soon as the current is turned on. The cause of this trouble cannot be found without removing the cells from the vehicle and discharging them at the same rate as that used in the motors and by testing each cell with a low-reading voltmeter. The customary method of burning the connections together is not considered advisable, as it involves the necessity of sawing them apart to remove a defective cell, and reburning it in place again. In addition to this, the batteries of an automobile require frequent cleaning, and a more convenient method of doing this should be provided.
The oxides from the plates of a battery begin to deposit as soon as it is put in service, and, although space is provided for the deposit, some of it will collect on the ribs in the bottom of the cells and between the plates. This will cause more or less loss of charge if the battery is left standing for any great length of time before again using it. The agitation of the battery while in use has a tendency to stir up the deposit, so, that much greater capacity can sometimes be obtained immediately after a charge than after the battery has stood over night. It is, therefore, advised to always charge the battery for at least a short time before going out, as this will not only replace any loss, but it will have a tendency to stir up or remove any oxide that has become deposited. The writer has known batteries to do their full amount of work when used shortly after being charged, but ran out in half the time when left standing over night. Too much reliance should not be placed on the open circuit voltage of the battery either before or after discharge, as the maximum voltage will be given by a set of batteries that has only a small percentage of the electrolyte left in the jars. The maximum voltage would be reached on charging sooner than with the full amount of acid. A defective battery will often give its full voltage when being charged and often hold it for sometime afterward, but on being called on for power it drops to a lower tention.
The working voltage is the best measure of the battery's condition. In the majority of automobiles the different speeds are obtained by various groupings of the cells. This only permits of the voltmeter showing the voltage being used at the time, and it requires the controller to be placed at full speed to get the total working voltage. If, on starting out, it is possible to run a short distance at full speed on a level stretch of road, the voltage should be noted. On returning at the same place and under the same conditions take the voltage again. In this way a good comparison can be made.
The batteries should frequently be removed from the automobile, and the interior of the body cleaned with water in which a liberal quantity of washing soda has been dissolved . This neutralizes any acid that may have been spilled and causes quicker drying. The battery trays should be treated in the same way. When thoroughly dry they may be painted and replaced. It is especially recommended that provision be made to charge the cells out of the wagon, so that the testing of acid, cleaning, painting, etc., may be done without loss of time. The electrolyte does not require renewing so long as the cells are in working order, but a sufficient quantity must be kept in them to cover the top of the plates about one-half an inch.
The specific gravity of the acid is a reliable test of the condition of the cells. They should all read uniformly. The Beaume scale hydrometer is generally used. In this connection attention is called to the hydrometer syringe, illustrated in Fig. 263, as an almost indispensable instrument for these tests and for other purposes.
Primary batteries for electric vehicles.
Many inquiries have been made as to the possibilities of using primary batteries for motor vehicles. We hear of no successful trials with wet batteries, and the consensus of opinion is that such batteries are out of the field for locomotive power.
We learn that a very light and elegant carriage has been built in England for the Queen of Spain, and supplied with dry batteries with a capacity for being recharged without going to a charging station. The batteries are said to weigh but 225 pounds, and claimed to generate sufficient energy to run the carriage at a speed of i0 miles per hour. The lighting of the carriage lamp is also provided for by the battery current. We can as yet only consider it as a royal toy.
The future of the electric automobile.
Anyone who is familiar with the condition of the art and with the character of the product of the various types of motor vehicles, cannot doubt the wide field that the electric motor vehicle will cover. There is no doubt but the steam and the gasoline vehicle will each have its field of usefulness , and while the same will be comparatively large, in fact enormously large, yet they will in no wise compare with the field that must be covered by the electric vehicle. In reviewing the comparative merits of the several types of vehicles named, the first general division will be dependent upon the ability of the vehicle to perform the required service under the existing conditions of roads and streets. This division will leave to the steam and gasoline vehicles the entire field covering exceedingly bad roads, such as predominate in some parts of the country territory. It will leave the field found in cities, and in such parts of the country as reasonably good roads prevail, to the competition of the three types of vehicles, and it is within this territory that the enormous sales will be made during the next decade, as it is within this field that the automobile is entirely and thoroughly practicable, and it is also within this field that are found the thousands of purchasers ready, willing and capable of paying for an automobile.
In determining the comparative merits of the several types of automobiles in the field last named, the following chief features will be considered and will be found to be of importance in the order in which they are named.
First.—Safety to the operator and occupants. In this important feature it is apparent that the electric carriage is entirely without an equal, as there is no possibility of any damage resulting from the use of boilers or explosives, as nothing of the character is used in connection with the electric carriage, nor could the slightest damage result to one from any shock that might be produced from the battery, as the voltage used in any motor vehicle is not above 88. which would have no ill effect whatever. The possibility of damage from explosion of boiler or of gasoline, is, of course, apparent to anyone.
Second —The care and ease of operation. In this again the electric carriage is entirely superior to either of the others. Anyone can operate it without previous practice or technical knowledge, and the care is so simple that :iny coachman of moderate intelligence can perform this service. It must be apparent again to anyone in the slightest degree familiar with either of the other types of vehicle that no one except an expert can be relied upon to operate them, and care for them, and that great damage may result by trifling errors in connection with their operation.
Third.—Possible prohibitory legislation. In this there is no possible objection that can be made to the electric carriage , for it is at all times free from any possible objections. This again is not true of the other types of carriage, and there is some probability of prohibitory legislation against these types, as they certainly come under the police regulations as given to municipalities by State legislatures. It may well be said to be a matter worthy of police surveillance , in which not only the convenience, but the safety of the public is interested in the matter of danger from possible explosions of boiler or other explosives, as well as to the odor and vapor emitted from these types of vehicles. Imagine the condition that would prevail if the present vehicles of a city were replaced by these types, and you have before you the importance of a vehicle which is entirely free from danger of explosives and from odor.
Fourth.—General elegance. In this feature, again, the electric carriage stands entirely alone; no uncleanliness, no vapors, no odors, no vibrations, no heat, no oil, and practically noiseless. Neither of the other types of carriage can be said to be free from the above objectionable elements; some (if them especially annoying, all of them disadvantageous .
Fifth.—Convenience. In this feature again the electric carriage stands at the head of the list; for, by the simple insertion of a charging plug when the carriage is driven into the barn, it will take care of itself, and be ready for operation when wanted. It is unnecessary to await the generation of steam, as in a steam carriage, and unnecessary to perform the difficult operation of starting the engine byhand , as in the case of a gasoline carriage.
Sixth.—Economy. In the cost of the production of energy required for the operation of the various vehicles, the electric carriage is probably a trifle more economical than either of the other types named, but the whole cost for the energy of operating an electric carriage is so far below the cost of operation by horse power, and it is so trifling a matter, that we regard this of the least importance of any feature named when connected with an article so expensive as a motor vehicle must necessarily be, and in which the other features are of so much greater importance than the mere matter of a trifling economy. The advantage of the electric vehicle in this respect is, however, very great, for as stated in a previous clause, the electric vehicle may be operated by a woman or child with perfect security, while an experienced attendant must always accompany either of the other types of vehicle.
Again the repairs on an electric carriage will be far less than on either of the others, owing to the very much greater amount of mechanism employed in either of the other carriages , and also to the vibrations to which the same are subjected. Thus it will be seen, by comparing the various important features of the three types of vehicles, that the electric vehicle is destined to cover this field practically alone.
An electric automouilli charging and repair station.
The automobile charging and repair station, illustrated in Fig. 262, antedates the automobile industry by a number of years, having been established in i89i for the manufacture, charging and general care of storage batteries of every description. With the advent of the automobile, the Storage Battery Supply Co., No. 239 East 27th Street, New York City, has increased its capacity for this class of work. Its facilities for the repair of automobile batteries are unsurpassed . A well trained force of men are constantly employed, and are ready day or night to make any repairs. It is a most convenient station for charging the batteries of private electric automobile carriages.
The hydrometer syringe.
The specific gravity of the acid of a storage battery plays an important part in its efficient working, and frequent tests are necessary to determine its condition.
Before the containing jars of the cells were reduced to the small compass necessary in an automobile, it was customary to have a hydrometer floating in the solution where there was plenty of room for its free adjustment to the variation in strength of the electrolyte, and an easy reading could be made.
That this is impossible in the tightly built automobile cells is apparent, and to overcome this difficulty the hydrometer syringe, illustrated in Fig. 263, was designed. By
slightly compressing the bulb and inserting the slender tube through the vent hole in the cover of the cell, sufficient acid may be drawn up to float the hydrometer within the large glass tube and the reading made at once. The acid is returned to the same cell, and the reading of the next is made. The laborious method of drawing out sufficient acid by a syringe, and taking its strength in a separate vessel , is avoided, as well as the general uncleanliness of this method.
The hydrometer syringe more than accomplishes this purpose, as it may also be used to add fluid to the cells, or it may be used in the preparation of the acid solution . It is manufactured by the Storage Battery Supply Co., of New York City.
The "multum in parvo" carriage lamp.
The fixture illustrated in Fig. 264 is more than worthy of its name. The limited space in the interior of a carriage does not admit of the usual form of incandescent lamp bracket with a projecting bulb. This compact arrangement, known as the "Multum in Parvo" lamp, is laid against the roof of a carriage or other vehicle, thereby lighting the interior in the most desirable manner without interfering with the free movements of the occupants. The lamp has a specially molded bulb that is suspended on springs in front of a silver-plated reflector. The whole is covered with a bent and beveled plate glass cover that may be engraved in any manner, if desired. A switch is placed in
the back. Modified forms of this lamp are used as a dash headlight, or for side lamps. It is manufactured by the Storage Battery Supply Co., New York City.
An electric automobile toy
Is a fancy in reality for the amusement of children, and sometimes may amuse those of older years. It is illustrated in Fig. 265, and manufactured by the Knapp Electric and
Novelty Co., 125 White Street, New York City. Those familiar with the subject are fascinated with this production in miniature, and the everincreasing class of knowledge seekers will find it a wonderful source of information and gratification. It teaches, amuses and gives great pleasure. As an electrical and scientific piece of mechanism it is unsurpassed.
Two dry cells of regular size, easily procured from any electrical supply house, are fastened in the body of the wagon and overcome the objectionable feature of acids in batteries.
Continuously, the battery vv-11 drive the wagon about five hours, but bv using a few minutes only each time, its radius of usefulness will be largely extended with one pair of batteries.
The motor and double reduction gears are placed under the body and drive the rear wheels. The front axle is pivoted and the lever may be turned to any angle. The body is beautifully enameled in green with gold trimmings, and fitted with a starting switch. Length, i2 1/2 inches; width, 6 1/2 inches; height, 7 1/2 inches; diameter of wheels, 3 inches; size cells, 6 x 2 7/16 inches.