Electric ignition devices

When the Edison-Lalande battery is used for automobile work,it is not necessary to employ a sparking magneto or a generator, or any other device of this character, as the battery delivers a perfectly uniform current which is just as strong at the end of twelve hours work as at the beginning. This simplifies the electrical connections very greatly, which is a great advantage when it is considered that gasoline automobiles are handled by people having little or no electrical knowledge.

The Edison spark coil is the result of a large number of experiments to determine the most efficient shape and style for use on rapid-firing motors. It is a short, thick coil, which will give a hot, bright spark, and yet will have an instantaneous discharge. This coil, when used with the Edison-Lalande portable batteries, types Z or V, makes a perfect outfit for vehicles requiring electric ignition.

Fig. 74 illustrates the Z Edison-Lalande battery, which is suitable for sparking small-sized gasoline engines, size 4 1/2 by 6jj inches, and has a capacity of i00 ampere-hours. Fig. 75 illustrates the V Edison Lalande battery which is suitable for sparking the larger vehicle gasoline engines, size 5f by 8 inches, and has a capacity of 150 ampere-hours. The elements employed in the Edison-Lalande cell are zinc, which forms the negative pole, and black oxide of copper (Cu. O), the positive pole of the battery. The exciting

liquid is simply a solution of caustic potash. The oxide of copper is obtained by the process of roasting copper turnings; the oxide is then ground into a fine powder and compressed into solid blocks, from which plates of a suitable size for the different cells are cut. These plates are suspended from the cover of the containing vessel (a porcelain jar), in a grooved copper frame, the sides of which are rigidly bolted to the cover by means of thumb nuts, one of which also serves as the positive pole of the battery. On each side of the copper oxide element in the larger type

cells (but only on one side in the smaller types) is suspended a rolled zinc plate. These zinc plates are fastened by a bolt to a knob on the cover. This prevents any move ment in the relative position of the elements, and does away with the necessity of using vulcanite separators to prevent any short circuits occurring in the solution. The zincs are amalgamated, and as in most bntteries, the zinc is attacked more vigorously near the top than at the lower part of the plate. The zincs for this cell are made slightly tapering, the thick part being uppermost. The exciting liquid employed in the battery consists, in all types,of a25 per cent, solution of caustic potash in water, or, in other words, of a solution of one pound of caustic potash in three pounds of water. When the circuit is closed and the cell is put in action, the water is decomposed, the oxygen forming, with the zinc, oxide of zinc, which, in turn, combines with the potash to form an exceedingly soluble double salt of zinc and potash, which dissolves as rapidly as it is formed; the hydrogen, liberated by the decomposition

of the water, reduces the copper oxide to metallic copper. A layer of heavy paraffine oil, three-eighths of an inch deep, is then added to keep out the air and prevent creeping. These batteries are manufactured by the Edison Manufacturing Company, New York City.

In Fig. 76 is illustrated an Edison four-cell primary battery suitable for motor ignition. It is connected in series and equal to an electromotive force of 7 1/2 volts. A current of from 5 to i2 amperes can readily be drawn from this battery. At a 5-ampere discharge it will give 250 Watt hours. It can be used for lighting carriages, where it will give three 3-candle power lamps for a period of eight hours.

This battery, which has permanent connections completely protected from the solution and placed at the bottom of the box, is free from deposits of every description, ready for use as soon as charged, and which gives a perfectly steady and constant current for the whole of the life of the charge. The battery fs absolutely free from polarization and one fluid only is employed, rendering it practically a single fluid battery. It will operate either through a spark or a Rhumkorff coil, and as there is perfect depolarization there is no possibility of failure to spark.

It has an outside measurement of 8 1/2 by 8 1/2 by 8 1/2 inches and weighs, when charged, 20 pounds. These batteries are furnished by the Edison Electric Light and Power Company, New York City.

How to charge the primary batteries. (fig. 76.)

To Make the Solution. Dissolve in an earthenware vessel six pounds nitrate of soda {Chili saltpetre) in one gallon of water and add slowly one gallon sulphuric acid ; allow it to stand four or five hours to cool. This solution is used on the carbons and should be kept in a stoppered bottle. Do not mix it in a glass vessel, a bottle or in the battery. The heat generated may break glassware.

For the zincs, add one part by volume of sulphuric acid to fifteen parts of water. To Charge the Battery.

Put in each porous pot the amount of nitrate of soda stated in the description of the battery; then fill the porous cell with the strong solution to within one inch of the top; then insert the zincs in the outer cells and fill to top of zincs with the dilute acid. Place the rubber tray absorbent pad and lid in place and screw down tightly. The battery is then ready for operation. The dilute acid may be mixed in the box in case of necessity.

Clean the zinc by dipping it for a short time in dilute sulphuric acid (one part acid to ten of water), then with a rag rub it with mercury till it becomes brightly polished.

Ignition by dry battery.

Dry batteries are much in use for igniting the gas charge in explosive motors; especially where the dynamo generator is in use, when it becomes a valuable reservation against failure of the generator. For starting a gasoline motor it is always ready and are now made with lasting qualities and can be depended upon for continuous service. The dry battery, Fig. 77, here illustrated is made by William Roche, 42 Vesey street.

New York City, for gas engines and automobile motor ignition and much used as a reserve, or for initial ignition to the dynamo in starting the motor. Their electro-motive force is from i.55 to i.65 volts, with from 8 to 22 amperes current. The gas engine cell is round, 7 by 3 inches. The automobile cell is 7 by 2 3/4 by 2 1/4, or made larger if desired.

The sparking dynamo or electric generator with permanent magnetic field is illustrated in Fig. 78. This dynamo igniter is constructed with a permanent magnet field and an armature of the drum type. It has self-feeding carbon brushes, and is self-lubricating, being

provided with grease cups. The armature , being enclosed, is dirt, oil and moisture proof. It can be run in either direction, and if the fly wheel of the engine runs true, may be driven from a friction pulley bearing upon the same, or may be belted to the fly-wheel or any convenient shafting. The speed should be about 2,000. The Holtzer-Cabot Electric Company, Boston (Brookline), Mass., manufacture these dynamo igniters. The sparking coil, Fig. 79, is of the Edison type. It is

9 inches long, with an iron wire core wound with six pounds of insulated copper wire, which enables it to give a bright, hot spark, even with a weak current, from the bat tery Thgy are furnished by the Edison Manufacturing Company, New York City.

The electric igniter.

Electric ignition for gasoline motors, in one of its forms is in general use. The primary current may be from a wet battery made suitable for vehicle service; a wet or drv storage battery or from a dynamo generator with permanent magnets for the field.

Small generators with a current wound field, so made as to have a magnetic reserve, are also in use. In Fig. 80 is illustrated an ignition battery plant, in which the batteries may be two or three in series, connecting with the binding post, P, of the primary winding of the induction coil, T, and continued through the other binding post, P, to the breaker at K, which is operated by a break contact arm or cam on the reducing gear or shalt. The secondary winding of the induction coil is connected to the binding posts of the ignition plug, P, by the wires, e, e, and continued through separate insulating sleeves, i, i, terminating in the platinum points, c, c. The distance apart ot the platinum points must be determined by the intensity of .the battery and induction coil.

Electric ignition coils.

The principles covering the construction of the jump spark coil having a secondary induction qoil is not generally understood; we therefore illustrate in Fig. 8i, the details of such a coil without a vibrator, and in Fig. 82, the same coil with the vibrator. The first shows the connecting arrangement as used by De Dion, ot tricycle fame in France. H, H, is the iron core generally made of soft wire. The heavy line coil is the primary winding over the core.

P, P, M, M, are the primary binding posts. The upper posts, P and P, are connected through the battery and switch The lower posts, M and M, are connected through the breaker on the reducing gear lrom the crank shaft represented at N, F, D, G. The upper post, P, and the lower post, M, are directly connected, making a complete primary circuit lrom the battery, A, through the switch,J,

and post, P. around the core and post, M, to the breaker at D, and through the lower post, M, and across by the upper post, P, to the battery. The condenser, L, is composed ol strips of tinfoil sepa rated by paraffined paper.

The strips of tinfoil are continuous or in series and are connected as a shunt across the contact breaker through the posts, M, M. The secondary coil of finer wire is wound outside oi the primary coil with each end terminating in the sparking electrodes in the cylinder.

The vibrating coil, Fig. 82, is the same in its parts and action with the coil. Fig. 81, with the addition of a spring vibrator shown at F, G. The primary circuit is completed by the cross connection from D to C.

The passage oi the current round the primary coil, excites magnetism in the solt iron core, H, which then attracts the block, G, on the spring, G, F, thus breaking the circuit at E, and stopping the flow oi current in the primary coil.

This action causes the core, H, to lose its magnetic force, and the block, G, in virtue of the spring on which it is mounted, flies back, and the circuit is remade at E. only to be broken again in the same manner. By careful adjustment of the screw in D, a very rapid make and break action may be obtained, which takes place many times while the commutator bar, C, is in contact with the spring, B, and during this period the passage of the battery current through the primary winding is rendered intermittent. The induced secondary current also becomes iniermittent, and this secures a succession of sparks that insures a positive ignition.

These coils are made and mounted in a neat substantial case, Fig. 83, and can be used either with or without the vibrator, as shown. With battery giving a current of 4 to 6 volts a spark of i inch may be obtained from this coil. It is fitted with binding posts, ready to connect the wires. It is made by C. F. Splitdorf, 25 Vandewater Street, New York City.

An improved electric igniter.

In Fig. 84 is shown a new ignition plug of French origin designed by Bisson Berges et Cic, Paris.

The plug and cap may be made of best brass or composition , with an extension piece cast on, or inserted with a platinum pin, opposite to which is a copper spindle with a fixed collar and a platinum point. The insulators may be of porcelain or of lava as made by the D. M. Steward Manufacturing Company, Chattanooga, Tenn. The packing may be of mica or asbestos. The thickness of the packing between the two lava or porcelain insulators makes an easy adjustment of the distance a part of the platinum tips.