Automobile bicycles and tricycle

The automobile bicycle.

In Figs. 117 to 120 are represented one of the German gasoline motor bicycles, made by Wolfmuller & Geisenhof, Munich, Germany. A large number of bicycles of this type are in use in Germany and France. In ordinary appearance it is that of an ordinary wheel of the lady's type, with exaggerated dimensions. Upon looking at it, the eye is struck by two peculiarities. The hind wheel is not, like the front one, mounted with spokes, but is solid and formed of two disks; and the machine is lower than ordinary models. This peculiarity is justified by the resistance that it is necessary to give a wheel, light upon the whole, that is actuated by two pistons which sometimes furnish as high as 2 horse power. So the rider, seated on the saddle and his two feet placed at the sides of the frame upon stationary stirrups, has only to stretch out his legs to find the ground.

The steering is done as in the ordinary bicycle, and with so much the more ease and fewer chances of sliding, in that the center of gravity of the apparatus is placed much lower than usual. The total weight of the vehicle is, nevertheless , not great, since, when ready to operate for long stretches, it does not exceed 110 pounds. The speed is easily regulated at from 3 to 24 miles an hour by means of a button placed under the thumb of the rider; the noise and odor of the motor are almost nil; powerful brakes render the cyclist always master of his machine, even in the steepest descents, and that, finally, so many valuable improvements are united in this vehicle, which has not yet reached its perfection , that it is bound to meet with success.

If we remove the covering plates from this bicycle, we first come across (Fig. 118) quite a complicated mechanical

apparatus, the too numerous details of which we have simplified for the clearness of description. The frame of the machine is formed of eight tubes, four on each side (CD; D E FG, G H, for example, on the right side) connected by various crosspieces (such as G D and EH) that consolidate them. These tubes are brazed together as in bicycle construction , and are assembled by sockets, D, G, etc., in a tight manner, since the)' communicate with one another and serve for the circulation either of the water necessary for the cooling of the cylinders or of the oil to reduce friction. The wheels are provided with pneumatic tires. The steering wheel, B, oscillates as usual around the axis, CF. The driving wheel, A, whose center is at I, is provided with a

firmly fixed cam, K, the use of which we shall see further along. All the essential parts are placed in the interior of the frame and are, consequently, protected against damages caused by a collision, fall, etc. The gasoline reservoir, M, is located behind the head of the bicycle, and may be filled through the capped hole, m,

with a quantity ol liquid sufficient for 120 miles. The gasoline falls, drop by drop, into the evaporator, N, in passing through the cock, 5, and the funnel, /. Through a simple mechanism, shown in Fig. 120 (4), the gas mixed with air in proper proportions enters the ignition chamber through the valves, 0.

A lamp, P, which continually keeps at a red heat a small platinum tube, placed above the flame, produces the explosion ol the detonating mixture The piston is thus

driven in the cylinder, W, and actuates the rod, LJ, which is aided in its return motion by a powerful rubber spring, EJ. As may be seen, the principle is not new, the details of its application alone possessing a real originality. The governing of the motor is, in fact, put at the disposal of the rider, in a very simple and certain manner. To the handle bar, to the right, at the level of the thumb, is fixed a threaded piece, Q, which controls a cord running upon pulleys and connected with the cock that regulates the flow of the gasoline, the valve that admits the gas into the ignition chamber, and, at U, with the valve that allows water to flow from the reservoir, R, for cooling purposes. The opening or closing of these parts can be done gradually by the progressive screwing up or unscrewing of the threaded nut. The rider thus gradually accelerates or slackens the speed of his machine ; but a sudden stoppage can also be effected through the freeing of a spring arranged around the regulating piece, and which, allowing it instantaneously to fall to the end of its threading, closes all the communications at the same time.

The most important control given to this handle-bar piece is that of the entrance and exit of the evaporator, jV(Fig. 1i8). The latter is thus named because the gasoline falling drop by drop through the funnel, /, evaporates therein. A succession of gauze sieves, a, a', placed one above another in the cylinder, offers therein the greatest surface of evaporation possible. The external air which, through its mixture with the gas, is to produce the detonating mixture, enters the cylinder through a capsule that prevents the suction of impurities and dust. The admission of the mixture into the valve chamber, is regulated by the piston, c, whose rod, d, is placed, like the gasoline cock, under the control of the rider. If, then, the latter completely closes the cock, he thus also closes the admission tube at the same time. The gasoline ceases to fall upon the gauzes, and the mixture to enter the ignition chamber, and conversely.

We have seen how the production of the mixture is obtained and rendered regular, and it now remains for us to remark how the mechanism of its distribution is made. The ingenious mechanism here employed is designed to open the two admission valves at once, at the moment desired, and by the use of a single lever. The cam, A'(Figs. ii8 and ii9), fixed upon the disk wheel, A, and carried along in its revolution, trees, in passing, the roller, K', mounted upon a guide block that transmits motion to the valve rod. It is this rod that, at V, actuates the distributing mechanism, which it is impossible to represent in Fig. 118, and the principal details of which are shown in Fig. 120 (5 and 6). This mechanism is installed upon a plate that forms a cover for the cooling box of the cylinders. It is constructed as follows : The extremity of the rod, K", is jointed at r' with a lever, r, that oscillates around the fixed point,p, and is continuously brought back to its normal position by a spring, S, as soon as the passage of the cam, K, over the roller, K", has made it lose it.

The extremity of this lever, r, is jointed at r" to another lever, t, whose extremity commands, at t', the valves represented in Fig. 120 (6). At about its center, the lever t(5), is jointed again to a crosshead, m, and held upon it with hard friction by two spiral springs. This head engages with the blocks, n and n', which are provided with corresponding notches. The central part of the lever, t, is thrust alternately against zu and w'. On another hand, the levers, t' (6) carry at their extremity another small lever, i ", which controls the valves, v1 and v2, leading to the ignition chamber. Owing to this arrangement, the lever, t, of one of the cylinders causes, at the same time, the ignition in the conjoined cylinder.

If now, we suppose that the cam, K, carries along the rod, K", it will be seen that the lever, t, will recoil and carry with it one of the levers, The crosshead, m, engages at the same time with the block, n, and compresses the spiral spring which is located behind the piece, w. But as soon as the spring, 5, acts, it brings the lever, t, to the front and causes the head, m, to engage at «, carrying with it the second lever, it', and reciprocally. These points in the operation of the various parts are better shown in the following cuts (Figs. 12i to 126):

The gasoline motor bicycle.

In Fig. 12i is illustrated a side view and partial section of the present motor bicycle, made by YVolfmuller & Geisenhof , Munich, Germany. This is their latest improvement . It will be noticed that the water reservoir in this bicycle is placed over the driving wheel, acting also as a guard.

The frame of the machine is formed of four parallel tubes, two upon either side, connected with the main journal boxes of the rear or drive wheel, and united at their forward ends with two pairs of oblique tubes connected by cross bars at the top, and carrying the steering head, in which is received the shank of the front fork, as in an ordinary bicycle.

Between the two pairs of horizontal bars are secured two motor cylinders, formed in one casting and provided with a water jacket. The cylinders contain pistons connected by piston rods with the crank on the main shaft. The bearings of the crank pins, as well as the bearings of the main shaft, are rendered nearly frictionless by the use of balls, as in the bearings of an ordinary bicycle. The cylinders are single acting, and the cranks, which are on opposite sides of the rear wheel, are parallel, and extend in the same direction. The motors work on the four cycle principle, and are so timed as to give one effective impulse for each revolution of the drive wheel.

The gasoline is contained in the reservoir, G, Fig. 121, supported by the oblique tubes at the front of the machine. This reservoir is connected directly by the small pipe,*-, with the burner which heats the ignition tube. In the top of the reservoir, G, is inserted a screw-capped filling tube, f, Fig. 122, the lower end of which is covered with wire gauze.

To the top is attached a screw-capped nipple, g, through which extends a wire, having on its lower end a cork float, by means of which the depth of the liquid in the reservoir is ascertained.

A conical air supply tube, h, projects into the reservoir, and is provided at the top with a hood, through which air enters into the reservoir. The hood is furnished with a check valve, which keeps the tube closed, except when a partial vacuum is formed through the action of the motor. The tube, i, projects into the reservoir, and is provided with a hollow spherical lower end, in which is formed a transverse slot. In this tube is inserted a wire or gauze cone,

connected at the top to the regulating valve, H, which latter also communicates with an air supply valve, k. The regulating valve, which is thin, is arranged to slide over the opening which communicates through the pipe, /, with the supply side of the valve casing. The proportion of gasoline vapor and air conveyed to the motor depends upon the position of the valve, H, and this is regulated by the lever, m, pivoted to the handle bar and connected with the valve, H, by a rod (Fig. 123). The lever, m, at its free end has a latch which is arranged to pass under a lug projecting from the handle bar when the valve is closed, and when the lever

is released to open the valve, the regulating cone screwing on to the end of the lever rests against a finger projecting from the handle bar, and serves to adjust the position of the valve by engagement with the finger as it is screwed along the threaded end of the lever.

The ignition of the charge is effected by heating the nickel tubes projecting about 2\ inches from the rear ends of the cylinders into the ignition box. In this box is placed a heating vapor burner, receiving its vapor from the vertical tube at the side of the box, which contains a wick saturated with gasoline supplied from the reservoir. The tubes extend into a fire clay chamber, in which are loosely placed three nickel spirals below the tubes,for distributing and retaining the heat. The heating burner, arranged in this way, effectively heats both nickel tubes, thus insuring prompt and regular explosions. The ignition tube is provided at its inner end with a flange which is clamped in place by a yoke. The lower oblique tube on one side of the

machine conveys air to the burner, and the oblique tube on the other side serves as a chimney for carrying the products of combustion from the burner. These tubes terminate in a comparted hood, F (Fig. 121). The front being the inlet and the rear the outlet from the ignition box.

On the top of the cylinder , above the explosion chamber at the rear of the piston, is a valve chest containing two pairs of poppet valves, one pair to each cylinder. The valve chest is furnished with two separate chambers, one for the supply of the explosive mixture, the other for the escape of the exhaust, and the valves are held to their seats by spiral springs surrounding their stems, as shown. The valves which admit the explosive mixture are provided with light springs, so that when the pistons move forward the valves open inward automatically; but the exhaust valves are furnished with heavier springs, which hold them to their seats at all times except when they are depressed by the valve operating levers, A, A'.

These levers are made to open their respective valves in alternation by the peculiar combination of levers shown more clearly in Fig. 126. Upon the side of the rear or drive wheel is secured a cam, B, upon which presses a roller, a, carried by the arm, b, jointed to the lower side bar. A rod connected with the arm, 6, is jointed to one end of the lever, C, the opposite end of which carries the hook, D. To the hook, D, is pivoted a three-armed lever, F, which is held in frictional contact with the hook by a strong spiral spring.

Pivoted to the top of the cylinders are two arms, c, c', which are pressed toward the center of the cylinder by springs. The forward projecting arm of the lever, F, is capable of bearing against the free end of one or the other of the arms, c, c'. The shorter arms of the lever, F, are alternately brought into engagement with studs, d, d', projecting from the top of the cylinders. The angled arms, A, A, are pivoted on a rod supported by ears projecting from the cylinders, and their downwardly projecting ends are engaged in alternation by the hook, D. This action of the exhaust mechanism controls the machine.

The exhaust escaping through the exhaust valve is taken to a hood, /, made in the form of a hollow quarter cylinder, which is divided into two compartments by a perforated curved partition. The exhaust pipe enters into the smaller compartment and the larger compartment is filled with asbestos cord. The convex surface of the hood, /, is perforated . The asbestos cord serves as a muffler which deadens the noise of the exhaust.

Over the drive wKeel is supported a curved water tank which is connected with the water jacket surrounding the cylinders, and the circulation of water serves to prevent the overheating of the cylinders. Strong elastic bands are connected with the connecting rod and with an arm mounted on a rock shaft at the top of the cylinder. These elastic bands may be put under tension to assist in starting by means of a screw at the top of the frame, which is operated by a crank and miter gear. The oil for the lubrication of the cylinders is contained in the upper oblique tube of the frame, and is fed to the cylinders by a sight feed, 0.

To start the motor cycle, the reservoir, G, is partly filled with gasoline; the door at t he back of the ignition box is opened and the burner for heating the ignition tube is started by giving it a preliminary heating by means of an alcohol torch. As the door at the rear of the ignition box is opened for this purpose, the air supply pipe is closed automatically by means of a connection with the rear door. When the tubes are red hot the valve, H, is opened, the rubber bands are put under tension and the machine is moved forward by the operator until an explosion occurs, when he mounts the machine and proceeds on his way. The proportion of the supply of air charged with gasoline vapor and pure air is regulated by the valve, H. By manipulating the cone on the lever, m, the supply of explosive mixture, and, consequently, the speed of the bicycle is regulated . When fairly under way, the tension of the rubber bands is released.

The action is as follows: The forward motion of the piston draws in the explosive mixture through the valve, H. On its return, it compresses the explosive mixture in the explosion chamber behind the piston, and a portion of the mixture is forced into the hot tube, where it is ignited, forcing the piston outwardly, giving the propelling impulse. The return stroke of the piston expels the products of combustion through the exhaust valve, which is opened by the cam, b, at the proper moment through the agency of the roller, a, and the hook, D, as already described, and the cylinders operate in alternation , thereby giving one effective impulse for each revolution of the drive wheel. To stop the machine, it is only necessary to close the valve, H, and apply the brake in the usual way.

The engine cylinders are 3 9/16 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 4 5/8 inches. The supply and exhaust valve apertures are 1/2 inch in diameter. The gasoline reservoir is 13 inches long and 7 1/2 inches in diameter. The driving wheel is 22 inches in diameter and the steering wheel is 26 inches in diameter. The pneumatic tires are made specially large and heavy to support the weight of the machine and rider. The wheel base is 4 feet; weight, when in running order, ii s pounds.

The reservoir contains a supply of gasoline sufficient for a run of 12 hours. Speed from 3 to 24 miles per hour. The elegant little tandem tricycle, Fig. 127, built by M. Leo Bollee of Mans, France, has figured largely in the French trial races. It differs somewhat in design from others in having a closed seat in front of the rear driving wheel, giving a most comfortable position for the driver. The slight elevation of this vehicle gives it a perfect

stability, since its center of gravity is i6 inches above the ground. Its wheel base is 3^ by 4 leet. The steering is by the forward wheels with knuckle joints on the axle and jointed spindles extending upward at the sides of the forward seat, with arms and links attached to a steering wheel at the right of the driver. The motor is of the four-cycle type with an unusually long stroke for carrying the expansion as far as practicable, and is rated at two horse power at 800 revolutions per minute , at which speed the vehicle runs at the rate of 27 miles per hour.

The driver with his right hand steers the vehicle by the hand wheel, while with his left hand he holds a vertical lever which controls all the movements for regulating the running . By pushing the lever the belt is tightened to start the vehicle, after the motor has been started by the flywheel or a crank. By turning the handle of the lever to the right or left the motor is thrown into gear with one or another of the three speeds. By pulling the lever back beyond the vertical loosens the belt and applies the brake. This vehicle weighs but 350 pounds in running order, and from its great speed for so small sized vehicle, was christened in Paris as the road torpedo.

This vehicle, in i896, was not claimed as a new invention, but rather as an assemblage of the best vehicle and motor conditions of the day for a very light, easily handled and swift roadster. All three wheels are mounted upon ball bearings and provided with Michelin removable pneumatic tires.

The accompanying figure gives an accurate idea of the Bollee tricycle. As may be seen, the person who sits in front does not aid in the steering of the vehicle. The steersman sits behind, his feet resting on each side upon a platform provided with a straw mat. He merely has to move his foot backward in order to press the lever of a powerful brake, whose block is tangent to the circumference of the driving wheel.

We may add that it carries a supply of gasoline sufficient for a trip of 72 miles, that it may be run at an expense of scarcely more than a cent a mile, and that the price of it is low enough to place it within the reach of persons of moderate means.

The fy motor tricycle.

In Figs. 128 and 129 are illustrated a vertical and plan view of a motor tricycle that has lately been put on the market in France by the Compagnie des Automobiles du SudOuest , of which M. Andre Py, the designer of the vehicle, is the manager. As will be seen from the illustrations, the

vehicle has three wheels, and has seating accommodation for two riders, back to back. The motor, C, is of the single cylinder horizontal tvpe, provided with radial disks for cooling purposes, and tube or electric ignition. It is capable of working up to 3 horse power. It is located on the lefthand side of the frame, with the explosion chamber at the rear. The exhaust valve, S, is controlled by a small longitudinal shaft, actuated by worm gearing, d, from the motor shaft, A. A centrifugal governor, r, is mounted on the shaft and prevents the exhaust valve being opened when the speed of the motor becomes excessive. The muffler is located at x. Three forward speeds of 5, i0 and i5 miles and one backward motion are provided, these being obtained by a series of gear-wheels on the motor shaft, A, and the countershaft, a, shown by the dotted circles. The handle, m, controls the forward speeds, and the lever, L, the backward motion. A friction clutch, G, on the plan is arranged in conjunction with the flywheel, V, so that the motor can be instantly thrown out from the transmission gear.

The Py voiturette is front driven and rear steered, the power of the motor being transferred to the front road wheels, RRl, through the counter shaft, a, and the gear wheels, E, a differential gear being provided on the opposite side at D. A handle is provided at M for putting the motor in operation, by means of sprocket wheels and chain, with a friction clutch on the motor shaft. Steering is effected by the hand wheel,f, connected by the rack and pinion gear, e, with the rear wheel, F, the latter being mounted in a special way, shown in the plan, by being pivoted on one end of its axle at O, which is moved forward or backward at the other end by the link rod and rack. A lever, l, controls a band brake on the differential gear, while a foot pedal,p, actuates two band brakes on the intermediary shaft, a. All the transmission gear is arranged under the seats, where is also located the gasoline storage tank, which has a capacity of four gallons. The vehicle is 9 feet long and 4 feet 8 inches in width, while the seats are only 4 feet above the ground. The center of gravity is quite low, making an easy mount and a safe vehicle as a business runabout.

The method of converting a motor tricycle for one person to a quadricycle for two persons, by removing the steering wheel and attaching a fore carriage with two wheels and seat, is one of the novelties brought out by the Ariel Cycle Company (Limited), of Birmingham, England, and is illustrated in Fig. 130.

The front wheel of the tricycle being removed, the arms extending from the under carriage are then fastened to the back axle sleeve of the tricycle; two tubes extending from the arms just mentioned have to be secured to the bottom

frame tube of the tricycle by means of a clip and bolt. These three clips are all that is necessary to manipulate, and the change from tricycle to quadricycle can be made in about half an hour. The body is carried upon a set of C and elliptical springs, thus giving perfect suspension. Mud guards are provided to the side wheels, and an apron fitted to the dashboard enables the passenger to be carried well protected from wind, dust and mud. The steering is controlled by the rear rider, and is arranged in such a manner that in taking a corner the inside wheel is not parallel to the outside wheel, the two being tangent to circles having the same center, which center is on the line of the axle of the back wheels. By this system friction is avoided, and the motor is not called upon to perform unnecessary work. The extreme length of machine, including the attachment, is 7 feet 7 inches, and width on the outside of the tricycle wheels, 3 feet 5 inches.

The running gear is very similar in detail to the De Dion and other tricycles described further on.

The automobile fore carriage.

A novel combination of the motive power with the steering wheels, making an independent driving power that can be attached to any carriage by removing the forward wheels, axle and springs, and substituting a fore carriage in their place, has lately come to public notice. It is of German origin and comes under the name of the "Kuhlstein Volmer " detachable motor or fore carriage, and has been in use in France as the Pretot motor carriage. It is illustrated in Fig. 131.

The American company who are bringing out this automobile is the Automobile Fore Carriage Company, Astor Court, New York City.

The points claimed for it are: That it can be attached to almost any of the old horse-drawn styles of vehicles, and that one motor can be used for a half dozen different vehicles. In fact, it is virtually a motor horse, to be harnessed to any vehicle at will. The driving machinery, consisting of a fourcycle gasoline motor, with cone pulleys and belt-change speeds, is enclosed in a rectangular box or housing, central over the forward axle, and is attached to the foot board of a carriage by a fifth-wheel or bearing plates, the upper one of which may be bolted to the frame of the carriage, while the under one forms part of the housing. The two plates can turn one upon the other by means of a circle of rollers, and the lower plate has a circular rack formed upon it which is engaged by the pinion of the steering shaft, which shaft is carried by the upper plate, and is placed conveniently to the right hand of the driver. The fore carriage motor is maintained in its proper vertical alignment by a strong, hollow pivot block, which extends upwardly from the lower bearing plate through a deep collar in which it turns in the

upper plate. The w'hole construction is sufficiently stiff and strong to transmit the tractive effort of the motor to the body of the vehicle without racking the frame of the latter. The operating levers are carried up through the central pivot block, and are arranged conveniently in front of the driver.

The roller bearing fifth-wheel applicable to the fore carriage is here illustrated in its parts.

Fig. 132 is a section showing the lower rail, a roller between its cage rings and the channeled top ring, closing over the friction rollers and cage to hold them concentric and to shut out dust and grit.

Fig. 133 shows the rollers enclosed between the rings and held in place by spindles.

Fig. 134 shows the roller system resting upon the bottom plate.

Fig. 135 the top channel ring in place with a section out in the cut to show the rollers. The roller bearing fifth-wheel is suitable for all kinds of vehicles requiring a fifth-wheel. They are manufactured by Christian Nielson, 745 Third avenue, Brooklyn, New York City.

The pennington motor tricycle.

The ilustrations, Fig. 136, shows an elevation, and Fig. 137, a plan of a tricycle for four persons, as built at Coventry , England.

It has the most compact form for its carrying capacity of any motor vehicle as yet brought out. Its weight is about 280 pounds, with dimensions allowing it to pass readily through ordinary doorways. A two-cylinder motor, acting on cranks at i800, gives a fair balance for a four-cycle impulse. A center line fly-wheel, with double chain and sprocket wheels, transmit the power to the rear wheel. The front wheels in independent sockets are operated by rods extending to the arms at the bottom of the handle bar axle. The speed, controlling and steering gear is operated by the driver on the rear seat by the vertical lever and the bicycle arms. The bicycle pedals and chain connections with the motor counter shaft give the driver perfect control in starting and stopping independent of the brake. The vehicle is started by means of the pedals by the driver after the passengers are seated, thus obviating the disagreeable vibration when the vehicle is standing.

The pedal shaft sprocket has a silent ratchet, so that the driver can use the pedals for a foot rest and be always ready to help the motor on a severe upgrade. Great ease and comfort is derived from the easy spring saddles and largesized pneumatic tires.

The gasoline is stored in the elevated tank from which the motors are supplied. Electric ignition is used.

The pennington & baines gasoline motor vehicles.

This company has brought to the United States a number of motor vehicles of the gasoline motor type. They are of English build, and somewhat heavier than the same style of vehicles built here.

There are many points in which improvements have been made in these vehicles; some of these improvements forming the subject of patents which are yet pending in some foreign countries, and consequently further information on these points is withheld for the present. It is generally known, however, that in the Pennington motor the use of a carburetor is avoided, and yet, because of the method

employed for feeding the gasoline into the cylinder, not only is perfect combustion secured, but every drop of gasoline is utilized, and the maximum power is developed from the amount of the hydro-carbon consumed.

The power is conveyed from the motor to the front axle of the car by either belt or rope, which can be tightened, if needed, even when the carriage is running, and without

stopping the vehicle. Motor carriage drivers, who have been troubled with a slipping belt, and whose only remedy was to stop the carriage, cut a piece out of the belt and splice it up again—an operation occupying with most people twenty minutes to half an hour—will appreciate the advantage of being able to take up any slack in the belt instantly.

Besides the positive speeds obtained by changing the gears, any intermediate speed can be obtained by the regulation of the gasoline supply, it being passed to the motor from the tank in which it is stored through a needle valve, and a quarter turn of the valve handle, conveniently placed within reach of the driver's hands, will decrease or increase (depending on which way it is turned) the gasoline supply, and the result on the motor is instantaneous.

With the Pennington vehicles the makers confidently claim absolute immunity from overturning accident; and as the center of gravity is only some few inches from the ground, and the wheel base being long, it is almost impossible to upset; indeed, the stability is so great that the vehicle can be swung round in a narrow road when going at high speed,—a feat which would be impossible in a heavy vehicle standing high from the ground. The steering is effected by means of the back wheels, the front wheels being driven, and this is a reversal of the usual practice for which certain advantages are claimed. The steering, for instance, greatly tends to prevent side-slip, and a complete circle can be made with these vehicles in a radius of about ten feet.

These racing tricycles have been much in use in England, where motor cycle racing has been in extensive vogue.

The de dion-bouton tricycle.

One of the most popular motor vehicles for a single rider, in France, is the De Dion-Bouton tricycle, of the hydrocarbon motor type. It has found its way to the United States, and will, no doubt, for its lightness, speed and ease of management, become a leading light vehicle here. In Fig. 143 is illustrated a general rear view of the tricycle, and in Figs. i44 and i45 an outside view of the four-cycle air-cooled motor.

In Fig. 146 is shown the details of the motor and the method of its operation.

Th3 tricycle is provided with pedals, sprockets and chain for stirring and as a means for returning home, if by accident the motor becomes inoperative, or as a help in ascending steep grades. The motor is journaled upon the sleeve of the main axle, as shown by the brackets, Fig. 144, and connected to the lower member of the frame by a link. It

is geared to the differential gear train by a pinion for the proper speed, which is regulated by the vapor and air inlet valves operated by and connected to the small handles shown on the upper cross bar of the frame. Referring to the motor, Figs. 144 and 145, A, is the charge admission valve; B, the electrode plug; C, exhaust pipe; D, rod and spring of the exhaust valve; E, electric contact breaker. A handle on the front frame operates the relief cock.

by the tube, A, and made to pass between the horizontal plate, B, and the surface of the liquid ; the carbureted air then rises, as shown by the arrows, and enters the double valve, C, shown below in detail, by which it is mixed with an additional quantity of air, which enters by the orifice, D, at the top; the mixture then passes to the motor by means of the tube, E. The admixture of air and vapor is regulated by the handle on the left in the small diagram, while the handle at the right regulates the flow to the motor cylinder.

The float serves to indicate the level of the gasoline in the carburetor by means of a rod which passes through the tube of admission; and the tube itself is arranged to slide up and down in order to maintain a constant difference between the

horizontal plate and the surface of the liquid, this plate being attached to the lower end of the tube. In order to avoid the cooling of the gasoline by evaporation, it is warmed by means of the tube, G, through which passes a portion of the hot exhaust gas escaping from the motor.

The cylinder, H, of the motor is of cast steel, with projecting flanges which serve to increase its radiating surface and prevent overheating; above is the chamber, J, in which the explosion of the gas takes place; at the top of the chamber is the valve, K, which admits the gas coming from the carburetor; the valve is normally closed by means of the spring, S, whose pressure is regulated so as to allow the valve to open upon the descent of the piston. Opposite is the exhaust valve, L, which permits the waste gases to escape after the explosion ; to the valve, L, is attached a rod which passes through the cover of the exhaust chamber and engages with a cam, M, which, by pushing up the rod, opens the valve at the proper instant, this valve being normally closed by the spring, r. At Wis shown the ignitor, consisting of two copper rods passing through an insulating bushing, and so arranged as to allow a spark from the induction coil to pass in the interior of the chamber for the ignition of the gas. The piston, O, is a hollow steel casting provided with three packing rings, and carrying the wrist pin. The piston is connected with the inclosed fly-wheels, Q and R, and with the shafts, 5 and T, by means of the piston rod, P. The shaft, S, carries a pinion which engages with another of twice its diameter, operating the small shaft above, t, which carries two cams; the cam to the right serves to open the exhaust valve once in every two revolutions , while that to the left acts upon the lever arm, U, carrying the contact, V, of the induction coil, by means of which a spark is caused to pass at IV, thus igniting the gas contained in the chamber of the motor.

This induction coil is operated by four dry batteries. From the preceding description the action of the motor will be readily understood. When the piston descends, it produces a vacuum in the top chamber, by the action of which the valve, K, opens, admitting the detonating mixture from the carburetor; when the piston rises, it compresses this gas and the valve of admission closes. At the instant of the second descent of the piston the cam actuates the lever, making contact with the induction coil, upon which a spark passes, causing an explosion of the gas, which pushes the piston with sufficient force to cause it to pass twice through the same position; when the piston rises after its descent, it compresses the residual gases of explosion, and at this instant the cam, M, lifts the exhaust valve and the gas leaves the motor by the exhaust pipe, Y. When the piston redescends, this valve closes and the upper valve opens, as before, to admit a fresh supply of gas and so on.

The discharge box, or muffler, is shown attached to the exhaust pipe, Y, in the diagram, and at the left of the cylinder , in Fig. 146. The two series of perforations in the muffler produce almost a noiseless exhaust. The maximum speed of the tricycle is 24 miles per hour, and grades of 8 to 10 per cent. may be mounted without the aid of the pedals.

The Waltham Manufacturing Company, of Waltham, Mass., sells the product of De Dion-Bouton & Co. in the United States, and in addition to selling the regular machines now manufactured by De Dion-Bouton & Co., they will import the De Dion motors, and make a complete line of "Orient motor cycles and motor carnages." They are now building tricycles, trailers and attachments, tandems and a light carriage.

Vehicles of the waltham manufacturing company, Waltham, mass.

The illustration, Fig. 147, shows the Orient quadricycle, which in principle and mechanism is the same as their tricycle , and shows the detachable parts for conversion into a quadricycle fitted. This machine meets the requirements of those who want a small light automobile for two, and one that is well adapted to all kinds of road use. It is built on sound mechanical lines, and of very rich finish. The extra wheel that is supplied can be easily fitted to convert it into a tricycle.

These vehicles comprise a line of gasoline-propelled automobiles which have recently been placed on the market by the Waltham Manufacturing Company, Waltham, Mass., of Orient Cycle fame. Their mode of propulsion is by the

French De Dion-Bouton motor, which represents a large percentage of the total number of tricycle motors in use and their popularity is exolained in their own simplicity. They are not only simple in construction, but very inexpensive to run, and the result obtained seem to give the best of satisfaction.

The principle of this motor is as follows: The vapor that rises from the gasoline in the carburetor, and with a mixture of air, is sucked into the motor by the piston. At the moment the charge is compressed by the return of the piston , an electric spark, which is worked automatically, and receives its current from the induction coil and small dry battery, explodes the gas, and the piston is forced into action. Upon its return the gases of combustion are expelled, and then a fresh charge enters as before. The radi

ating flanges on the motor cylinder serve to throw off the heat, and thereby eliminates the use of a water jacket. The cost of feeding a motor of this kind is quite small. A gallon of gasoline will supply power for about 50 miles, and can be obtained at almost any place.

The popularity of the motor tricycle in Europe served as the best introduction it could receive into this country ; and it is now classed among our leading styles of automobiles. Among its many good features is that it can be converted into a tandem quadricycle by simply removing the front wheel and substituting the fore wheels and seat, which are furnished with the combined vehicle; or else a trailer can be attached if desired.

The motor being placed below the rear axle brings the weight of the machine, which is proportionately distributed, close to the ground, and thereby insuring the greatest safety. The carburetor, battery and other parts are placed in convenient positions in line of the frame, and the rider has full control of the machine in his left hand, where a simple turn of the handle-bar grip connects and disconnnects the current.

With a little assistance from the rider by the use of the pedals, steep hills can be ascended without difficulty, and the pedals can also be used to increase the speed. The general arrangement of the motive power is shown in Fig. 146.

Fig. 148 shows the facility of arranging the detached running gear and seat forward from the motor, and in Fig. 149 is shown the trailing attachment of the second seat and wheels following the tricycle.

The canda auto-quadricycle.

In the design of this unique motor vehicle, the running gear differs somewhat from the French and English models of the De Dion tricycles. It is built by the Canda Manufacturing Company, Cartaret, N. J.

It is, as illustrated in Figs. 150, 151 and 152, a most convenient tandem rig for two persons, one in front in a comfortable buggy seat; the other on the saddle, steers the vehicle and controls the gasoline motor.

The central frame, which carries the saddle, is of steel tubing, constructed on bicycle lines, to which is affixed the steering handles and the pedals for starting the vehicle. Outside of this a curved frame of angle iron connects the front and rear sections of the vehicle, lorming a light and stiff structure.

The quadricycle tracks 36 inches in width, with a 46-inch wheel base, and measures 7 1/2 feet in length over all. The wheels are 26 inch diameter, of the tangent spoke tension type, with 2 1/2-inch pneumatic tires. When charged ready for service it weighs 350 pounds.

The motor is of the four-cycle type, with air-cooling flanged cylinder mounted just back of the rear axle and geared direct to the differential gear box. A band brake is

controlled by a lever under the handle bar. The motor is of 1 3/4 horse power, and controlled by varying the charge, giving speeds of from 2 1/2 to 25 miles per hour. The general details of the motor management are similar to the De DionBouton tricycle, illustrated in Fig. 146. The steering is by rod connection from the handle bar

spindle to the arms of the front axle pivots at the hubs of each wheel.