How the work is done

A Detroit daily newspaper not long ago printed a story anent a new farm tractor, said soon to be placed on the market by the Ford Company, and added, in the fulness of reportorial wisdom , that while the Ford factory was at present equipped for building Ford cars only, yet all of the machine-tools had been designed with such cunning foresight that "by merely changing the dies" they would produce farm tractors just as well as they had before produced Ford cars. Probably the average Ford factory visitor has the same general broad conception of the "How" of making 1,000 automobiles (it is now more than 1,100 automobiles) per day.

The man who really knows anything of the entrails of a machine shop, who knows that nothing, of advantage, at least, ever "happens" in a machine shop, has plenty to think about as he stands at the "startto -run" end of the Ford chassis assembling lines. This man of experience asks himself how the component production is evened up to assembling requirements^ Here are, say, from 1,000 to 4,000 separate pieces of each chassis component to be supplied daily, infallibly, and constantly. How is this done?

In brief, first, by unremitting record-keeping of every finished component produced. Hour by hour, with endless toil and pains, an absolutely correct record is kept of the Ford component production and of the Ford factory out-put.

The factor of safety of component supply is placed by the official production head at a sufficiency for 25,000 cars, a month's assembling supply at the production rate of 1,000 cars per day. This is official, but, as will be seen from the "shortage-chaser" story, the factory practice does not follow the production-head schedule, but quite to the contrary, places a maximum component supply at a sufficiency for 5,000 cars, three-days' assembling, with a danger line at components enough for 3,000 cars.

Is it easy to hold these figures by accurate factory superintendence and accurate production accounting? Easy or difficult, the accurate factory accounting records are made, but are not used for emergency decision in directing component production.

Seeing is believing. (When a Ford car assembled-component assembler suddenly discovers that his requisition on finished stores for components wanted at once is not filled because there are no such components in finished stores, no grand conclave of factory accountants is summoned.

Quite to the contrary, a brisk and intelligent young man, styled the "Shortage Chaser," whose face already begins to show fine lines etched by the stress of concentrated attention, boards the department drifting within sound of breakers] seizes the helm of component production, and pilots the department into smooth water again-^sometimes but barely escaping the surf-line, it is true, but yet always managing to escape disaster.

The Shortage Chasers

In point of fact there are two shortage chasers—the day shortage chaser, and the night shortage chaser who combines shortage chasing with other duties from the time he goes on duty at 3:30 p. m.; he stops at 7:30 p. m. to eat 10 minutes on his own time, begins again at 7:40, and works to 11:40 p. m.

At 3:30 p. m. when he goes on duty, the night shortage chaser first inspects the day shortage-chaser's final report, made at 2:30 p. m., and is thereby informed as to the condition of all assembling departments which are working through his shift, the day shortage chaser specifying in his 2:30 p. m. report what component production is most needed and specifically calling the night shortage-chaser's attention thereto. Guided by the day shortage-chaser's report, the night shortage chaser urges the most needed component production, has checkers and counters under him, and fills' tags authorizing the removal of finished components from their production department to the assembling department which needs them. Before leaving at 11: 40 p. m. the night shortage chaser makes a record of components which he has moved from a production department to an assembling department, for information of the day shortage chaser, who comes on duty at 6:30 a. m.

The usual number of reports made by the night shortage chaser to the day shortage chaser is about six.

The Day Shortage Chaser

The story of the shortage chaser must be told as briefly as is consistent with intelligibility. His desk is about 50 feet north of the machineshop superintendent's office; he has a desk and one assistant.

At 6:30 the day shortage chaser, henceforth specified as "the shortage chaser" only, first inspects the night reports, making notes of impending shortage; next he notifies the "checkers" who direct the movements of components reported at or below the 3,000 danger limit; this is done at 7:00 a. m., the shortage chaser making a personal delivery of his own pencil memoranda to the proper "checkers." Next the busy shortage chaser goes in person to each assembling station reporting shortages and informs himself by personal observation of shortages—this because the final reports were made to component-production officials at 2:30 p. m. of the previous day. Being then advised of actual conditions by personal observation, the shortage chaser goes to the foreman of the machine department producing the most needed component, informs

him of conditions, and from this department foreman to such other department foremen as he may deem needful to see in person, say from three to ten individuals. Next the shortage chaser makes his 8:30 a. m. report at the checker's office by writing the same on his checker's office blackboard, 40 inches wide by 40 inches high, with 59 lines for writing in chalk. On this blackboard the chaser makes his reports by first inscribing each symbol and following the symbol with numbers of this individual component finished since 6:30 a. m. of the current day.

This blackboard record is then typed in manifold in the clearing house; one copy is sent to each department foreman interested, and one copy is sent to the shortage-chaser's desk, these typed report copies being distributed at about 8:40 a. m.

The next succeeding morning the shortage chaser compares his shortage reports for that day with the typed record of his shortage reports made on the blackboard at 8:30 of the previous day. He adds, in pencil , to the typed report of the day before such shortages as may be revealed by the reports of the current day, and delivers this added-to-inpencil typed list of yesterday's shortages to the clearing house tag-blank filler, who is a clearing house official, but is placed at the shortagechaser 's desk for speedy communication. His duties are explained below.

The day shortage chaser makes three reports daily to the clearing house, at 8:30 and 11:30 a. m. and 2:30 p. m. From 6:30 a. m. to 11: 30 the shortage chaser covers all factory production departments and all assembling departments, and at 11:40 a. m. he chalks all production results from 6:30 a. m. to 11:30 a. m. on the clearing house blackboard. The shortage-chaser's clearing-house blackboard reports are thus made the guide for the activities of the checkers and counters and the checker's truckmen in moving components first to such departments as are most in need of replenishments.

Having made his 11:30 a. m. reports on the clearing-house blackboards in the stock superintendent's office, the day shortage chaser then again turns his attention to such assembling departments as most need his presence, and at 2:30 p. m. makes his final blackboard records in the stock-superintendent's office, which is also the "clearing-house" head's office.

The Clearing House

The function of the "Clearing House" is to initiate and control the movements of foundry finished product^ in the form of snagged and tumbled , patched and sand-blasted castings (forming the entire finished product of the foundry),, the completed machine-shop departments product, and the products of the snagging department, pressed-steel department, bushings department, magneto department, fender department , gasoline-tank department, coil-box department, brake-band department , muffler department, and painting department, which finishes certain components checked into and out of the painting department by the clearing-house checkers.

Clearing-House Officials

The Clearing House has one head, one chief clerk, stationed at the shortage-chaser's desk, and above referred to as the tag blank filler, thirteen "checkers," and fifty "counters," under the checker's orders.

The Checkers

When any component production department has completed a production order the department foreman reports to a clearing-house checker orally, and the checker then takes one or more counters, as may be needed, with him to the production department and there proceeds to count the product into suitable receptacles, to enter the quantity on a proper tag, and to wire the body of the tag, or all of the tag, to the component receptacle, to serve as a direction for delivering the compon ents to the proper department by crane, mono rail or otherwise, and he also takes such other steps as are needful to give the clearing house a record of the components transfer, all as fully detailed in the description of the use and functions of the clearing-house tags, presently following.

Clearing-House Original Records

These are all made on wired tags and the coupons of these tags, presently to be described as to forms, colors, and functions.

The Clearing-House Chief Clerk

The chief clerk is the responsible official of the clearing house, who collects, .compiles, and separates into appropriate groups and divisions all the tag records which comprise the entire original records of the clearing-house transactions. The clearing-house chief clerk is stationed at the shortage-chaser's desk and has three clerks and one messenger. The clerks are located close by the chief clerk, and are employed solely in transferring production records, taken from tags filled by checkers,to certain "record boards" and books. Each day's component-production records for the entire factory are completed at the end of each day, but the chief clerk consults the shortage-chaser's clearing-house blackboard reports, and also the shortage chaser himself, to aid in producing completed records of components which are short, first, before completing the records of components which are in good supply, so that early attention will be given to shortage production.

Clearing-House Tags

The only form blanks used by the clearing house are wired tags, suitable for attaching to component receptacles. Their size, color, and use are as follows:

Form 708, Blue, With Coupon

Filled by checker in a production department from counter's report to checker, body and coupon both; checker separates coupon and sends it to the clearing-house chief clerk, and then wires blue tag body to the component receptacle, which then passes into control of the shop transportation system. Used for components produced in the machine shop, only. Form 708, wired blue tag, 3% inches wide by 6% inches high, coupon 29/ie inches high; stiff card, printed in black on one side only, with duplicate serial numbers in red on body and coupon. Used for components produced in the machine shop only, which may be delivered either to the finished-stock department or to an assembling department, "Stock Advance" Tag.

Form 709, Pressed-Steel Components

Form 709 is same as 708 in all particulars save color, which is bright green, serial numbers in red. Its use is the same as that of Form 708, save that the component originates in the pressed-steel department. Form 705, Deep Red, Rush from Machine Shop Used for components produced in the machine shop to be delivered directly to an assembling department.

Two coupons are filled by the checker from the counter's report. The checker removes the end coupon and sends it to the clearing-house chief clerk, who transfers the record to his production records. The checker also removes the second coupon and sends that to the finishedstock department. He then wires the body to the component receptacle which is transported to the specified assembling department. The finished-stock department then fills an assembling-department requisition and sends same with the second coupon to the assembling department , where the department foreman compares the amount, and if alike, signs the requisition and returns it to the finished-stock office. All the clearing-house tags are the same over-all dimensions—a stiff tag deep red, with two coupons; the first is l7/ie inches high, the second 2 inches high, printed in black, on one side only, body and both coupons bearing same serial number.

Form 820, Rush for Pressed-Steel Components

Form 820 is the same in all particulars as 705, for the same use, but is yellow in color, and is the rush tag for pressed-steel department production , printed in black on a deep yellow tag, serial numbers printed in red.

Partial-Quantity Delivery Tag

Form (no number) "Stock Advance Tag," "Series C" "PartialQuantity " delivery tag is filled by the checker, both body and the one coupon. The coupon is detached by the checker and held by him until the quantity for the day is known, when he makes out a department requisition for the total coupons quantity, and sends same with the coupons to the department which verifies the quantity, signs the requisition , and returns the requisition with the verifying coupons to the checker, who retains the coupons and delivers the requisition to the clearing-house chief clerk. This form is used for one or more partial deliveries from the same department, all on one day, in all departments save and except the machine-shop departments and the pressed-steel department. Color, vivid salmon; coupon 1% inches high, printed all in black, on one side only.

This story has told how workmen are taken into the Ford shops, and enough of the finished-components handling is given to show how the men are kept busy, and to show the duties of the shortage chaser, who is a result of the closely limited maximum production working of the Ford factory, which has never yet been able to produce cars enough to enable the acceptance of immediate delivery orders during the spring and summer.

If the shops at Highland Park were not worked to maximum capacity continuously, the shortage chaser would be superfluous. With the factory production capacity in excess of the demand for cars, the finished stock (that is to say, the finished components in the finished-stock department), would always be kept sufficiently in advance of the requisitions of the assembling departments to meet all requisitions promptly and certainly—a condition of affairs which would at once eliminate the shortage chaser, because there would then be no shortage possibility. This story shows how the Ford shops manage to face a constant shortage probability—perhaps it might be said that the real condition is that of actual shortage of components constantly—and yet escape serious delays.

If the factory production capacity were in excess of the Ford car demand, and the component production were in excess of assembling demand, there would then be an overhead interest and storage charge against the factor-of-safety excess of finished components held in the finished-stock department, which does not now exist. On the other hand, the shortage chaser now avoids disastrous shortages only by the use of extraordinary care and exertions, together with sudden changes, which are always costly factory expedients and conditions . The entire situation at the Ford shops is novel, and is met by novel methods, and is of much interest to factory managers in general.

The ideal factory condition is undoubtedly that of perpetual tranquillity, all operations balanced and co-ordinated, so that there is no "hurry up" pressure required in any direction whatever. Yet this condition of perpetual tranquillity necessitates the carrying of large values of finished components, with an inevitable increase of fixed charges, greater or less as the margin of safe component-excess supply is fixed at a higher or lower level. There is a point, of course, where abundant component

supply carried in the finishedstock department becomes an extravagance , and is hence reprehensible ; so that it is not easy to say with certainty that the handto -mouth component production, even when coupled with the anxieties and make-shifts of the shortage chaser, really costs more than it would cost to carry an ample supply of finished components of all kinds. Leaving these ultimate considerations out of viewy this story simply shows the practice of a factory which is so fortunately situated that its market is readymade , so that the selling of the factory product is of negligible importance, while the constant maintenance of the factory production-capacity at maximum becomes the one objective of vital importance and all absorbing interest to the management.

Cylinder Machining, Crank-Box Construction, and Brazing It is to be regretted that space does not permit each of the subjects specified in the above title to be treated in a chapter by itself, so that each story might be written in full detail, because each one, as practiced by the Ford Company, is of interest at every point and well worth complete illustration and description.

On the other hand, the factory manager has no time to spare for reading which is merely of general interest, but wishes concentrated and suggestive mention of causes and methods, rather than facts and details merely, so that the necessity of condensing the three specified divisions of Ford practice into the space of a single chapter may best suit the desires and purposes of production managers at large.

Machining the Ford En Bloc Cylinder

The Ford en bloc four-cylinder casting form (see the illustration, which shows six different views of this component) is very far from being a simple affair, either in the foundry or in the machine shop.

It is a piece designed to meet a great number of conditions of importance , quite regardless of moulding and finishing costs, yet it is actually machined in 45 minutes of working time, including the time of placing and removal from machines , but not including the time of transportation from one machine to that making the next cuts. There is no hand work on this cylinder, there are but few operations made on one cylinder only at a time, and these single-cylinder operations are rapid. The longtime operations are performed on milling machines having long tables, and the table feed is started as soon as the first cylinder is clamped in place on the table, while removal from the table begins as soon as the cylinder is fully exposed after passing the milling cutters. A sufficient number of spare milling cutters are provided for each operation to ensure having a newly ground set of cutters on hand before change is needful. Each set of cutters is worked through one 8-hour day, and the setting of the cutters is facilitated by table marks and suitable straight edges so as to consume the least possible time, and to ensure the utmost attainable accuracy in cutter placing.

Gauging and Inspection

The cylinders receive twenty-one inspections and gaugings in the course of finishing; all inspection results are fully recorded, and the machining is so carefully conducted that less than one-half of 1 per cent of the cylinders are spoiled in machining.

Somewhere about 8 per cent of the cylinders moulded are lost in the foundry, and of 1,000 apparently perfect cylinder castings sent from the foundry to the machine shop about 100 are thrown out as wasters because of spongy or "stodgy" spots. Where the leaks shown in the hydraulic test (which is made following operation 5, in the series of machining operations described below) are susceptible of plugging they are plugged and saved. This 1,000 good cylinders from 1,100 rough cylinders sent from the foundry to the machine shop is favorable practice, and the wasters percentage may rise very considerably from unanticipated causes.

But this matter of cylinder-wasters percentage belongs more especially to the Ford foundry chapter, which shows what is believed to be the most advanced foundry equipment so far placed in any foundry anywhere. All fuels burned and irons melted in this foundry are subjected to chemical analysis and everything is done under strictly scientific regulations, yet the percentage of cylinders lost varies greatly. The cylinder is difficult because the water jacket is only Y% mc'b thick, to begin with; but as before said, this whole matter belongs to the Ford foundry story, where the cylinder-founding practice is detailed at length and day-by-day cylinder-castings production-results are given.

The first cylinder-machining inspection follows operation 2, and inspection also follows operations 3, 4, 5, 7, 8,11, 13, 15, and 17. From operation 18 to operation 28, inclusive, the cylinder is gauged after each operation, making a total of 21 gaugings altogether, the last 11 being made by one single inspector. A full and complete inspection record is kept so that the faulty cut in each waster is known and the machine fault, if such exists, is remedied at once. Should the fault be due to any workman's act, he is, of course, duly informed and his faulty practice changed.

The finishing routine is shown in the chart, "Cylinders-Finishing Routine Diagram," given on page 73, the legends specifying the nature of the operation, while the floor travel of the cylinder from one operation machine to the next in sequence is given in feet between the operation numbered circles, and the name of the supplier of each machine -tool is also given in juxtaposition with each operation circle, while half-tone illustrations of many of the machines are shown, with appropriate captions.

Besides this operation diagram, a scale drawing of the actual placing of the various machine tools on the shop floor is reproduced on page 74, each tool groundplan having the operation number shown, so that the actual relative positions of all the machine-tools used in machining Ford cylinders are placed before the reader. As to the mill cuts made, they are all end cuts, no mill cut being made with the circumferential surface of the milling cutter, and almost without exception the mills have inserted teeth. None of the mill cuts are made by driving the milling-machine table both ways, though some of them might be so made. The cylinders are pickled perfectly clean before reaching the machine shop.

Ford Cylinder-Machining Operations

    Here follows a brief detail of the twenty-eight machine operations required to machine completely the Ford four-cylinder en-bloc casting, which is shown in six positions on page 72.
  • Operation 1. Spot the cylinder by two rough-casting-surf ace points near the top end of the cylinder, directly under the two hand wheels on top of the cylinder fixture and by four points of the crank-box coring, these cored surfaces being located by an "evener" internal spotting gauge, placed inside the crank-box coring. The cylinder crank-box end rests on a screw-adjusted wedge at the middle point of the cylinder length; this wedge, in connection with the two fixed supports, widely separated, near the top end of the cylinder, gives the cylinder casting a three-point support. By adjusting the wedge position the crank-box end of the cylinder is raised or lowered to bring the two index marks on the "evener" (placed inside the crank-box coring) into registry with each other. See enlarged view of the "evener" in position in the crank-box cored opening.

This fixture spots the rough cylinder at four points—two exterior, near the top end of the cylinder, and two interior, near the bottom end of the cylinder, while the first cut, surfacing the four "spots" on the top end of the cylinder, is made. The illustrations on pages 75, 76, with their captions, will make this cylinder holding for the spotting cut clear to the reader. Machine designed and built by the Ford Motor Company.

    Operation 2. The cylinders are next placed in fixtures on an Inger soll milling machine, where each cylinder stands topend down on its milled spots, and is clamped against two hardened plugs which bear on the outside cylinder-surface spotting points made in operation 1. This second operation cut then cleans the flat bottom-surface edges of the crank-box end and also, with a half-round mill, cleans the babbitt seats of the three crank-shaft boxes.
  • Operation 3. Drill the six crank-box-cap holdingscrew seats, ream one end hole, letting the reamer follow the drilled hole, and then, with jig having a pin in the reamed hole, jig-ream one of the cap-screw holes in the other end ot the cylinder. These two reamed holes then become the spot-holes by which the cylinder is located for all succeeding cuts.
  • Operation 4. The cylinders stand on their bottom ends, position fixed by fixture pins which enter the two reamed spot-holes, and the mill cuts surface the top ends and sides of the cylinders. Ingersoll machine.
  • Operation 5. Rough bore the four cylinders at the same time. Machine supplied by Foote-Burt Company.
  • Operation 6. Hydraulic test of water-jacket, sixty-pounds pressure ; machine designed and built by Ford Motor Company. If leaks are shown they are marked by red paint circles around them and the cylinders go to the pluggers, if leaks can be plugged; if impossible to plug them, the cylinders go back to cupola. If no leaks are shown the tester makes his "O. K." mark on the cylinder and passes it for succeeding operations.
  • Operation 7. Ingersoll machine, milling both ends.
  • Operation 8. Finish reaming cylinder bores; Foote-Burt machine.
  • Operation 9. Drill valve-stem holes and finish valve ports; FooteBurt machine.
  • Operation 10. Drill and ream push-rod holes; Foote-Burt machine.
  • Operation 11. Ream valve-stem holes; Foote-Burt machine.
  • Operation 12. Mill door-seats, Kearney and Trecker knee milling machine, with end-mill in vertical spindle.
  • Operation 13. Drill fifteen holes at once, from three directions; Foote-Burt driller.
  • Operation 14. With reaming arbor, carrying three reamers, arbor on lathe centers, cylinder standing on bottom end, spotted by two reamed holes, ream the crank-box babbitt seats, previously rough-finished by half-round mill, operation 2. (Refer back to the description of this second operation, page 78.) This brings the babbitt seats in to exact position with relation to the two reamed spot-holes; Reed-Prentice lathe.
  • Operation 15. Cross cuts over ends of the three crank-box bearings, six cuts; Hendey Machine Tool Company.
  • Operation 16. With two cylinders, crank-box ends together, on arbor on lathe centers, finish transmission seats; Reed-Prentice lathe.
  • Operation 17. Ream crank-shaft babbitt seats; Reed-Prentice lathe.
  • Operation 18. Drill forty-five holes at once from four directions; Foote-Burt drilling machine.
  • Operation 19. Drill fourteen babbitt anchor holes from two directions , on Foote-Burt driller.
  • Operation 20. Spot-face fifteen holes; Barnes drilling machine.
  • Operation 21. Drill and counter-bore intake and exhaust port holes; Foote-Burt machine.
  • Operation 22. Face time-gear; Cincinnati Drilling Machine Company's driller.
  • Operation 23. Drill and counterbore three core-plug seats; Foote-Burt driller.
  • Operation 24. Spot-face mainbearing bolt holes; Cincinnati Bickford Company's driller.
  • Operation 25. Face two camshaft retaining-screw bosses; FooteBurt machine.
  • Operation 26. End-mill cleaning of the arc-shaped water jacket openings to the cylinder-head water-jacket space; Ford Motor of machine.
  • Operation 27. Tap ten holes from two directions; Foote-Burt machine.
  • Operation 28. Tap 24 holes from three directions; Foote-Burt machine. This completes the machining of the cylinder, ready to go to the assemblers, who grind the valve seats, babbitt and bore the crank-boxes, and fit the crank shaft to its boxes.

The entire time occupied in placing on machine, making cuts, and removing from machine, is 45 minutes for each cylinder . The total floor-travel of each cylinder, between operations , is 334 feet. The floor-travel time is not included in the 45 minutes of cylinder -finishing time.

The highest Work man's pay on the cylinder-machining job is $5 for 8 hours, 623^ cents per • hour, say a fraction over 1 cent per minute. Add another cent for cutting-edge up-keep and one more for overhead charges, we have 3 cents per minute for the workman's time, all charges included, which is probably somewhere near total per-minute shop cost, and the machining cost of Ford cylinder, 45 minutes time, is 45 X 3 = $1.35, only, certainly much below what seems possible in the way of low cost for this job involving 28 operations.

This is an instructive example, as showing the very great labor-cost reductions made possible by an unchanging model of the salable product.

The Ford Motor Pressed-Steel Crank Box

The illustration on page 83 shows a number of the finished pressedsteel crank-boxes so placed as to show the form of the box completed. This crank-box begins with large sheet-steel plate, No. 13 gauge or 0.093 inch thickness.

The principal drawing and shaping operations on the crank-box are worked on the row of E. W. Bliss presses, shown in the illustration on page 84, but the drawn shape produced by the press dies has a considerable number of added members of various forms, pinned and riveted and brazed or soft-soldered in unit assembly with the drawn sheet-steel shell, and many drilling, riveting, grinding and lathe operations are required to complete the pressed-steel crank-box and give it its finished form.

Crank-Box Press Work and Annealing Operations

The sheet-steel stock, 0.093 inch thick, comes to the press line in sheared sheets large enough for one blank, and the blank is punched out of this sheet on the first press at the west end of the line, this act of blanking out being crank-box operation 1. Blank over-all dimensions, 46 inches long by 24 inches extreme width.

Operation 2. The blank is stiff from the finishing rolls of the plate steel mill, and is placed at once on a steel-roller gravity-incline and carried to the annealing ovens, 1500 degrees F., where the blanks are piled, one hundred and fifty on each one of six oven cars, which fill the oven with nine hundred blanks. As at present worked the six cars go into the annealing oven at 8:00 p. m., remain until 12:00 midnight, are then withdrawn and left in piles on the cars until 6:30 a. m., when they are cool enough to be worked in the drawing press.

This first annealing practice will soon be obsolete. A furnace now under construction is served by an endless chain moving up and down, which is fitted with pendulum blank-carriers to take the blanks individually as they come through the press die, carry them upward about 60 feet in the furnace uptake, giving ample heating time, and then carry the blanks downward 60 feet in the open air, giving plenty of cooling time before the blanks reach the oiling table, where two oiler men with oil brushes cover both sides of the blank with lubricant before it is given draw No. 1, on the large drawing press next east of the oiling table.

The first anneal is operation 2, and the oiling is operation 3. Operation 4. First draw, Bliss press, 5 1/2 inches deep. The maximum depth of draw is 8 1/2 inches (operation 7) and the finished depth of draw is 8 3/16 (operation 10). Operation 5. Second anneal. The crank-boxes are placed individually on a gravity roller-incline and go down hill to the annealing furnaces , where they enter the oven on a single car in piles of fifty, nested, remain one hour, and are then cooled for an hour, when they are cool enough for the second draw. Operation 6. Second draw, brings up and shapes the drain-cock seat. Operation 7. Third draw, carries stock down to maximum depth of 83^ inches, with several other changes of form. Operation 8. Fourth draw, finishes corners and fillets and brings job to shape generally.

Operation 9. Anneal: carried down roller-slide by gravity to annealing oven. Nested 120 on one truck into oven, oven one hour, and one hour to cool. All these blank ovens are kept at about 1500 degrees F. Operation 10. Final draw; puts in U-shaped brace, gives general finish to corners, fillets and flats, and reduces maximum depth from 8}/£ inches to 83/i6 inches. Operation 11. Trim, pierce, and cut out the transmission door in bottom.

Operation 12. Stiffen. Again down a roller-slide to large furnaces, where the crank-boxes are heated individually on large-area furnace floors and are then individually quenched in tank of soapy water. Operation 13. Straighten up in operation 10 die. From operation 13, the crank-box goes to the component appliers and brazers and grinders and turners and soft solderers, all listed as follows:

    Straighten trunnion to place by hand, and gauge for position with forked and sliding gauge. Workman is bending over to see how trunnion stands up and down in gauge fork
  • Operation 1. Apply drop-forging half-ring to rear end, drill three pin holes, put in pins.
  • Operation 2. Rivet pins both ends; John F. Allen, N. Y., pneumatic riveter.
  • Operation 3. Seat and drill front vertical wall for four rivets.
  • Operation 4. Burr up rivet ends to retain rivets.
  • Operation 5. Head front-wall rivets, by hand.
  • Operation 6. On anvil with hand-hammer and "staking" tool, stake front wall to fill.
  • Operation 7. On surface plate, gauge and with hand hammer bring job to over-all length.
  • Operation 8. Apply globe seat for front-axle globe-end radius-fork.
  • Operation 9. Drill for two rivets, to fix globe-bracket position.
  • Operation 10. In press, rivet ends of globe-bracket.
  • Operation 11. First braze; rear-end reinforce, made in a four-fire, hand-revolved brazing-furnace. See illustration on page 85. Ford Company design and construction.
  • Operation 12. Braze globe-seat bracket. Vertical flames both upward and downward. Ford construction, shown in the illustration on page 86.
  • Operation 13. On emery wheel, polish arm-seats.
  • Operation 14. Face end of rear annular collar flush with crank-box shell end.
  • Operation 15. Back to big press line, and in final die straighten up the job, far as completed.
  • Operation 16. Re-rivet front-wall rivets, stretched by preceding operation.
  • Operation 17. Bring walls to length with press surface-jig.
  • Operation 18. Grind flat over walls at ends.
  • Operation 19. Pierce two holes for drain-cock flange; also, same operation, seat and close in the drain-cock seat ready for tapping.
  • Operation 20. Rivet splash-plate.
  • Operation 21. On driller, half-globe ream front-axle radius-ball seat.
  • Operation 22. Drill thirty-one holes, Bausch Machine Company's driller. See illustration, page 87.
  • Operation 23. Burr thirty-one drilled holes; Bausch Machine Company 's driller.
  • Operation 24. Punch three rivet holes in each arm-seat. Ferracute Machine Co. press.
  • Operation 25. Drill fourteen transmission cover holes, Bausch Machine Company's driller.
  • Operation 26. Burr fourteen drilled holes, Bausch Machine Company 's driller.
  • Operation 27. Punch three holes in front and bottom; Ferracute Company, Bridgeton, N. J., press.
  • Operation 28. Ream front wall for starting-crank sleeve seat. Motch and Merryweather Machine Company.
  • Operation 29. Punch overflow screw-seat-bush holes.
  • Operation 30. Fix front-end malleable-iron casting trunnion in place with two rivets.
  • Operation 31. Drill six more trunnion rivet holes. Wormer Machine Co. driller.
  • Operation 32. Hand-rivet six rivets in trunnion.
  • Operation 33. Close in the two overflow-plug bushes, to be tapped to take the overflow screws. These screws are at different levels, to show maximum and minimum oil plash-pool depths in crank-box flywheel -housing depression. E. W. Bliss press.
  • Operation 34. Press-rivet six rivets in end trunnion shell, Toledo Machine Tool and Press Company .
  • Operation 35. Turn crank-box shell projections down over trunnion shell, with hand-hammer.
  • Operation 36. Braze trunnion shell to crank-box shell, in four-hole, hand-revolved brazing furnace. Same style of furnace as is used for operation 11.
  • Operation 37. On a large cast-iron jig, with legs and clamp and spotting pins, gauge and straighten the trunnion. See illustration on page 88.
  • Operation 38. Drill trunnion hole. Foote-Burt driller.
  • Operation 39. With angle plate on face-plate and lathe and back-rest fixture, turn trunnion; five Reed-Prentice lathes and one Warner lathe on this job. See illustration on page 89.
  • Operation 40. With crank-box clamped to lathe-saddle spotting-fixture, bore and face rearend brazed-in dropforging annular collar.
  • Operation 41. Drill and tap screw holes in rear-end collar.
  • Operation 42. Place the two pressed-steel hangers by which crankbox is held to chassis frame, drill for and insert three pins, and rivet pin ends, to hold hangers to crank-box shell.
  • Operation 43. Braze crank-box hangers to crank-box shell, four fires in a bank, with swinging flames on top, stationary flames below.
  • Operation 44. By hand, with big file end, scrape and clean insideof crank-box shell.
  • Operation 45. By hand, finish-tap rear-collar screw holes.
  • Operation 46. Place transmission covers, with gaskets applied to covers; place horse-shoe reinforces inside of crank-box, and put in fourteen transmission-cover screws, through covers, through gaskets, through crank-box shell, and turn screws down hard; screws threaded into the two horse-shoe reinforces.
  • Operation 47. In large fixture, with gauge and hand-hammer, bring the crank-box hangers to place.
  • Operation 48. Lay crank-box, flat side down, on large surface plate, and with hand-hammer make the crank-box top flange lie down on the surface plate, all the way around.
  • Operation 49. In a large fixture, with clamps, with hand-hammer, bring the hanger holes to slide on fixture pins.
  • Operation 50. Tap globe-seat cap holes for cap retention.
  • Operation 51. Tap drain screw seat.
  • Operation 52. Tap the two overflow screw seats.
  • Operation 53. Fill overflow screw seats with temporary brass screws, screw-driver cuts, to close holes for gasoline leak tests.
  • Operation 54. Tap two holes in rear-end annular collar, and two holes in front vertical wall.
  • Operation 55. Heat front side of front wall, and clean wall and box wall seat with muriatic acid, to clean the surfaces for soft-soldering.
  • Operation 56. With tinning fluid and hand soldering-copper, softsolder front wall in place to the crank-box shell inside.
  • Operation 57. With hand copper, fill joint with soft solder and also fill top joint between box wall and the front wall, if joint is open on top side.
  • Operation 58. With hand-file end clean off surplus solder.
  • Operation 59. Place drain screw and turn it down hard.
  • Operation 60. Press the hand starting-crank bushing into place in center of trunnion.
  • Operation 61. Place crank-box, open side up, in gasoline vat and see if any gasoline leaks into the box at any point. If leak shows it is made tight.
  • Operation 62. Final. Dip in air-drying japan vat, to japan outside of crank-box.

The over-all dimensions of the completed crank-box are 42 7/8 inches long, 22 3/4 inches extreme width, over the hangers, 183/g inches extreme width of shell, and 8 3/1o inches depth inside. The weight of the finished crank-box assembly is 29 pounds. The factory cost, including all materials and overhead charges, was, through the month of February, 1914, $2.26274, or about $2.26 1/4. Of this total, according to the Ford costing department, labor and overhead charges make up $1.63749 and material is $0,625. This is, of course, far below what the cost would be in smaller numbers. The production averages about 900 per day, giving opportunity for elaborating the plant to the economical limit of specialtool installation.

The finished crank-box of pressed-steel is extremely strong, not liable to fracture from blows, and gives a very stiff and substantial support for the entire power plant of the Ford car, and, beyond doubt, the reliability of the Ford car is vastly enhanced by using wrought steel instead of cast metal as a crank-box construction material. So far as I am aware, no other small gas-engine has been fitted with a pressed-steel crank-box, and in my own opinion, the Ford crank-box is far and away the best ever used in a motor car.

The brazing fires are specialized and differentiated to such an extent as to afford a highly valuable study to those who make continued use of brazing, especially in view of the assertion made by Ford officials that no Ford car ever came to grief through brazing failure. An illustration of a Ford revolving-work-carrier continuous-process brazing machine is given, showing the latest Ford practice in that direction.

In all Ford brazing operations where the conditions permit, the flame is directed downward on the brazing and a pit of melted borax is maintained directly under the braze. The brazing material is in all cases brass wire. For most of the brazing operations the wire comes to the brazer in coils about as big as a man's fist; the wire is soft, and the brazer straightens out what length he desires, and bends the end to suit his work. The brass which runs off the braze falls into the melted-borax pit, which is cleaned out with a ladle every day, these cleanings being treated to recover the brass they contain.

Most of the Ford brazing is done with the brazing wire in hand-coils, as shown in the illustrations. In no case is granulated spelter used. Where the long wire cannot be conveniently used, the same brazing wire is cut into lengths about 1/2 inch long and laid upon the surface before the work is put in the fire.

Ford Spot Brazing, with Oxygen Flame

The one fault with brazing as a method of uniting metal pieces is the impossibility of full inspection without cutting the job to pieces. A braze may be good all round the visible junction of the pieces and yet may not cover the broad meeting surfaces of the two components. To make a certainty of f ull brazing the Ford Company introduces the secondary operation of "spot" brazing, done by an experienced workman , who handles an oxygen and gas torch (which gives a fine-pointed pencil of extremely hot flame) in his right hand, and a coil of brazing wire in his left hand and carefully inspects the braze made and patches it up with "spot" brazing wherever his experienced eye detects a possible fault. The oxygen flame is very hot and melts the brass rapidly, and as the pencil of flame is small the spot brazer can place his work exactly, and make the braze good with certainty.

Page 92, the final illustration of this chapter, shows a Ford "continuous " brazing machine, a hand-revolved vertical turret work-carrier, with over-head, arc-shaped, heating chamber, worked with two men, one to place the work and move turret, while the other does the brazing and removes the work. This picture is given here because this is the brazing story of the Ford series.

The Ford assembling practice, both of motor and of the chassis, is of the highest importance, and demands a separate chapter of its own to give even so much as a general showing of the unique "moving assem-" bly" Ford practice, in which the assembly itself slides on ways, slowly chain-driven, from one group or pair of assemblers to the next assemblers , instead of the component under assembling standing still while successive groups of assemblers perform their operations on the stationary component. At first the work was pushed along by hand; but it has very lately been discovered by the Ford engineers that a slow chaindrive much reduces assembling labor costs, and now most of the Ford assembling slides are being fitted with endless-chain drives. The moving of the assembly to successive groups of workmen of itself made a very great reduction in Ford assembling costs, the work being pushed along by hand at first; but now it is fully decided that the slow chain-drive is vastly superior to hand moving, as it brings all the groups of assemblers to a uniform speed rate, hurries the slow men and restrains the too swift men, and as before said lowers the assembling labor-cost while improving the quality of the product. This practice will be shown in detail in the fourth chapter.