The foundries

The chapter on commutator production showed a small aluminum foundry located in the commutator-department machine room to avoid needless handling and transportation of the commutator case.

Save for the commutator-case founding, all the Ford castings are made in one foundry, under one managerial head. This main foundry is equipped with many novel mechanical aids to labor-cost reduction, each one of which is here separately illustrated and described in full, and all important particulars of the foundry practice and the labor management are given in sufficient detail to enable the reader to understand fully all the means and the conditions which help the Ford foundries, gray-iron, brass, and aluminum, to obtain their very low production costs while paying higher wages than any other foundaries in the world, and paying hour rates only—no piece work, no premium scheme—to p. all workmen.

Mr. Robert Thurston Kent, in a recently published article on foundry cost reductions, said that any man who said he could lower costs in any particular foundry within six months from the beginning of his efforts was a fraudulent pretender, and a man to be avoided, since, even with the soundest practical knowledge, no foundry-management expert could hope to show notable and consistent labor-cost reductions in any foundry given into his hands for betterment, inside of two years.

Circumstances alter cases. The Ford foundries actually reduce costs every day, all the time, continually, and no Ford foundry worker, I from top to bottom, ever shows the slightest hesitation jn obeying any "-* new instructions whatever.

The big foundry is now working about 1,450 men, all told. Of the moulders, about 55 men, in the "jobbing" department, are thoroughly skilled, all-round moulders, the very best that can be obtained. Of the other moulders perhaps 5 per cent are skilled moulders and core-setters.

The remaining 95 per cent are simply specialized laborers, many of them foreigners who had never seen the inside of a foundry and could not speak a word of English when they began; were given one piece only to put up, learned the "trade" in two days (if a man cannot learn to put up a small, plain job in two days the Ford foundry bosses pass him up as hopeless) and began to turn out a full day's work of good castings on the third day of employment. Of the 1,450 hands on the foundry pay roll about 1,220 are receiving $5.00 or more for 8-hours work. The remaining 230 are drawing higher hour pay than they Could obtain in any other employment within their own knowledge, and,

speaking broadly, it may be said that not one single man in the Ford foundries, working in any capacity whatever, knows how or where he could better his pay check.

These pay conditions make the workmen absolutely docile. New regulations, important or trivial, are made almost daily; workmen are studied individually and changed from place to place with no cause assigned, as the bosses see fit, and not one word of protest is ever spoken, because every man knows the door to the street stands open for any man who objects in any way, shape or manner to instant and unquestioning obedience to any directions whatever.

What follows should be said here, to avoid the possibility of inference that any workman, however ignorant oi unskilled he may be, is ever subjected to arbitrary or inconsiderate discharge from the Highland Park shops. First, no department head has the power to give any workman his final discharge. All any department foreiaan can do is to notify the time office that a certain man is no longer working in his department. Before a department head rejects a man every effort is made by the department head to find a place in his own department where the man can be profitably employed. The workman's own story obtains attentive hearing, his physical limitations are considered, and every effort is made to place the workman where he can be suited himself , while he is giving profitable service. In case the department head can find no such place for a man, then the discarded worker goes before a board of higher officials, who give him a full hearing and try to place him in some other department of the plant, so that a workman must show very decided all-round incapacity before he is finally discharged.

Free medical treatment is given where needed, and evefy man who once enters the Ford service is given every assistance, so long as there seems to be any chance of mutually profitable relations remaining. But willful insubordination is, of course, absolutely intolerable, and Ford workers must be, first of all, docile.

The following incident gives striking evidence of the Ford consideration for workmen seriously in fault. It is a hard-and-fast rule of ordinary factory management that when two workers come to blows in working hours both shall be instantly paid off, discharged, and put outside of the factory walls never to be taken back again.

In the foundry office my attention was attracted by a small man standing huddled in one corner with his hands in his overcoat pockets, who glowered and shook his head in emphatic negation, while a much larger man talked to an interpreter who translated the larger man's story to the foundry head; the latter said nothing, but presently penciled two slips of paper, gave them to a messenger boy, and the messenger convoyed the small man and the larger man out of the office door into the foundry.

In reply to question, the foundry head said that the small man and the larger man were second-shift core-makers, that the small man started fisticuffs with the larger man the night previous, that no certain information could be gained by cross-examination, and that he had sent one man to the cupola charging-stage for a week, and the other one to the cylinder-shake-out gang for six days, and that the fighters would both be very glad to return to their benches.

The Foundry Building

The designer of the main gray-iron foundry building achieved no great triumph in the way of a big foundry building. The ventilation is now very far from what it should be; the air during work hours cannot be endured by any workmen save those possessing respiratory organs of the most robust description, and many visitors are unable to walk through the Ford gray-iron foundry in working hours because they cannot breathe the air.

Otherwise than in the matter of ventilation, all working conditions are of the very best. The hours are short, only 8 of the 24, cold pure water is everywhere at hand, goggles and leather leggings are supplied by the company to those liable to accident from molten metal, and no man is worked beyond a reasonable exertion of his muscular powers.

When Mr. Kent asserted that at least two years of hard work were needed to make marked and certain headway in reducing costs in any one particular foundry, he had in view, first the inertia of the management itself, which certainly desires labor-cost reductions and just as certainly maintains a "conservative" attitude of deep respect for the traditions of its old, honorable and deservedly trusted head men. While fully convinced that labor-costs can be and should be and must be reduced, yet from habit, the management defers to the opinion of its own men who are always opposed to the edicts of the expert cost-reducer, who thus has every man in the place against him, in his inner consciousness , though all may really desire a general betterment. Hence the labor-cost-reduction expert must move with utmost caution to avoid a revolt against "red-tape" and "system" which will throw him out of the door in disgrace, if he puts on a front of authority at the outset of his campaign against the existing order.

The foreman and sub-foremen of the place under treatment find it hard to accept instruction; the workmen, always suspicious, never aware that the highest labor-hour production is the highest human good, object to being "speeded up," even though the speeding up may actually mean an easier day's work for themselves—all so that absolutely nothing but a long continued and wisely tactful effort can possibly bring permanent and peaceful success in labor-cost reducing.

The Ford high wage does away with all of this inertia and livingforce resistance. The top men of all Ford departments know they are expected to make labor-cost reductions, that tomorrow must always better today. The workmen are absolutely docile, and it is safe to say that, since the last day of 1912, every single day has seen marked reductions made in the Ford shops labor-costs.

Can Other Foundries Reach the Ford Costs?

In case of continued repetitions of foundry product, as in instance of farm machinery, stoves, heaters, radiators, and so on, other foundries can reach labor costs as low as the Ford costs by open shop and highhour pay, which will infallibly secure willing obedience of day workers.

Low labor-costs ensure large product sales and steady employment for day-pay men. In case of the jobbing foundry it is probably correct to say that labor-cost reduction must be a work of time, because jobbing means uncertain sales and demands skilled, all-round moulders. Of course, as is now well known to factory managers at large, willing labor, systematically directed, will automatically effect continuous labor-cost reductions.

Mutinous labor nullifies, in large part, the gains which can be made by good management of willing labor. The Ford foundry as first started had no distinctive features whatever , unless saw-tooth roof lighting may be so rated. The shovel and the wheelbarrow reigned supreme, everything done by hand, nothing by machinery, when, May 10, 1910, the first Ford Model-T cylinders were made from wood patterns. The early history of the foundry is of little importance in this story, which is intended to show the practice of today.

The Model-T patterns were changed to metal and placed on commercial moulding machines, some of them specialized to meet Ford requirements, but all purchased from outside suppliers to the trade and noneof them demanding detailed description here.

V Late in 1912, the first important novel feature of the present Ford foundry, the core-sand gallery and the core-sand mixing-stage, all on one level, with traps in the gallery floor for supplying individual mixed core-sand chutes to each core-maker's bench, were installed, thus avoiding all mixing of core sand by the core makers themselves. The endless -chain-driven mould-carriers, the second marked feature of the Ford foundry, by which moulds are now brought to one pouring field, at one end of the mould-carrier circuit, and to one chevron shake-out grating, at the other end of the mould-carrier circuit, began work in February, 1913.

The view shows the pushers overhead and the descending north end of the pusher chain, with top and bottom sprockets. Pushers travel in a rectangular path which encloses both moulders and machines.

With the mould-carriers, the continuous sand-handling-and-mixing endless-chain-circuit was also installed, so that the machine moulders were relieved of the labor of handling and cutting over the sand which they used,\each machine moulder having an individual overhead sand chute which he could open to fill his flasks as needed. This sand circuit is placed over the machine-moulders' heads for supplying the individual sand chutes, with a return under the machine-moulder's feet, and an elevator at the shake-out end to a moistening and cutting-over mechanism which delivers sand ready for moulder's use to the overhead chutes, all in continuous circuit, so that the machine moulder has nothing to do save to make the mould itself.

The core-sand mixing-stage supports machines which automatically produce unvarying core-sand mixtures, and the galleries, trap-doors and core-sand chutes deliver these uniform core-sand mixtures to the proper core benches, thus making it certain that the cores will be made of the best mixture for their purpose, and also cheapening the labor-cost of core making. The Ford core-sand gallery is believed to be unique.

The mould-carriers obtain all the advantages of the moving assembly line, which has so greatly lowered the Ford assembling costs in many departments. A machine-moulded cope and drag are two elements of an assembly finally to be completed by closing the moulds, weighting them, and pouring melted metal into them, and large savings in laborcost can always be made by moving the assembly in progress past component supplying stations.

The core-sand gallery, the mould carriers and the endless chain coreoven—the only thing I have ever seen that ensures uniform core-baking— are the three principal factors of the Ford shops low-cost founding.

The Ford Foundry "Unit"

One "unit" comprises two circuits of mechanically-driven mouldcarriers , having located midway between them a double line of moulding machines, each fitted with its own overhead sand chute, as described.

Overhead sand troughs from elevated cutting-over, moistening and riddling tower to individual machine moulders' sand-chutes. Steel vertical sand-pushers are 30 inches long by 20 inches high. The trough is 30 inches wide inside. The sand-pushers are driven by endless chain, running in a trough over the heads and in a sand-way under the feet of the moulders; chain speed is about 40 feet per minute. View from the north, looking south.

The labor equipment of each unit comprises machine moulders; mould-handlers, who take the moulds from the machines and deposit them on the pendulum shelves of the carriers, or close them on drags previously placed on the shelves; weight layers, who lay the weights on the copes of the closed moulds; pourers, who carry skimmers and skim their own hand-ladles; and shake-out men, who shake out the moulds at the grating and pile the runners together.

Wash basins are placed inside the mould-carrier circuits, together with a small table used by the "check-taker." For mould-production recording purposes each machine moulder is provided with a certain number of individually-marked, small, round, brass checks, one of which he lays upon each mould which he makes cope or drag as may be. The moulds pass the check-taker's station before closing, the checks are taken off and piled on the check-taker's table to the number of 25 for one moulder, and are then marked on a moulder's record sheet and the checks are returned by the check-taker to the moulder who owns them.

All the Model-T component gray-iron moulds except the en-bloc cylinders -casting moulds are produced by the units. The cylinder moulds are taken from the moulding machines and placed on the floor, usual manner, for core setting and closing, and are poured in the usual manner, with ladles suspended from overhead electric cranes.

Drawings have been made for continuously moving cylindermould -carriers, but these circuits of pendulous cylinder-mould-carriers have not been constructed at the date of this writing, November 16, 1914.

Power-Driven Mould Carriers

Power-driven mould carriers are old and well known in the founder's art, both continuously and intermittingly driven, though I have seen but one such installation, that in the Westinghouse Air-Brake foundry.

This endless train of 240 cars (memory record) is used for producing the Westinghouse air-brake cylinder, is intermittingly driven, and has each car mounted on four wheels which run on finished metal rails.

The construction of the mould carrier circuits has been changed in every one up to and including Unit No. 4, which is regarded as satisfactory. The pendulums in No. 4 are steel tubes, while in the others they are of channel bars. The speed of the carriers is about 12 feet per minute.

One side of the chain of cars, which is run on parallel tracks connected by semi-circular ends, is used for cope and drag moulding, core setting, and closing; the other side of the train is used for pouring, cooling, and shaking-out over a shake-out grate, fitted with spiral conveyors and sand moisteners underneath which deliver the sand to an endless-chain elevator supplying the individual moulder's sand-chutes on the moulding side of the car track. Printed description of this train of mould-carrying cars was not permitted, hence the intermitting car-movement was not examined. I watched the smooth and good action of this Westinghouse train of mould-carrying-cars several times and was greatly impressed with its labor-saving virtues. JAs the story was told to me, this endless train of mould-carriers was invented by the foreman of the Westinghouse foundry, was patented, and patent assigned to the Westinghouse Company and held for its own exclusive use, save that a gift of a shop right was made to Crane Brothers, Chicago, 111., who used it for valve-body moulding. I have never seen this Crane shops installation, butfboth the Crane andthe Westinghouse mould-carriers have been seen by the Ford engineers who placed the Ford mould-carriers, and who were unfavorably impressed by the Westinghouse intermittent action but liked the Crane installation, which places the endless-chain sprockets overhead and drops pendulums down from elevated-track-carried trolleys, these pendulums having mould shelves fixed to their lower ends.

Some Mould-Carrier Construction Particulars

The diameters of the large overhead mould-carrier chain-sprockets is 121 1/2 inches, pitch circle. The north-end sprocket is electric-motor driven, the south-end sprocket is an idler.

The different mould-carrier-circuits have different lengths of mouldcarrying shelves as well as different numbers of shelves, and have the sprocket center-to-center distances varied to suit. The principal dimensions of the No. 3 unit are as follows: conveyor sprockets, center to center, for each mould-carrier circuit are 36 feet; distance from center to center of mould shelves in the parallel sides of the circuit is 1213^ inches; distance between the circuit centers is 37 feet 33/£ inches; distance between the inner lines of the shelves of the two circuits is 26 feet. This is the width of the space occupied by the moulding machines and the moulding-machine men. This distance of 26 feet could probably be reduced to 6 feet, if one line of moulding machines was placed inside of each circuit of mould-carriers, as would be possible if the mould-carriers ran on tracks on the same level as the foundry floor.

The No. 4 unit has 49 mould-carrying shelves, each 23^ inches long by 15 inches wide.

The entire cost of one unit, exclusive of cost of moulding machines, is about $15,000.

The Ford plant mill-wrighting has been until recently charged in a lump sum to factory expense, with no detailed costs made up against individual installations, hence exact figures of " unit" costs cannot be given.

The pendulum mould-carrier has no obvious advantages, but has marked objections in the way of inaccessibility of driving mechanism and the free swing of the pendulous mould-shelves, besides greatly obscuring the saw-tooth lighting, and, the most serious fault of all, when

the carrier is in operation it cuts off access to a large floor space which is thus made waste territory.

Unquestionably, for difficult and exact core setting, such as is demanded for the Ford Model-T cylinder, an intermitting mould-carriermovement is highly desirable, and certainly a far cheaper continuousmovement mould-carrier installation can be had without the large overhead sprockets which drive and carry the Ford endless-chain pendulum -mould-carriers.

It is but justice to say that the Ford engineers are perfectly satisfied with their own installations of mould-carriers, which work steadily and smoothly, and give no trouble of any kind whatever.

Cores, Core Driers and Core Ovens

T With core makers, as with moulders, the Ford foundry depends mainly on specialized laborers, all males. In many foundries small cores are made by females, more docile than males, and having a delicacy of touch which naturally fits them for handling fragile product.

The Ford foundry expects to transform a laborer into an efficient maker of one core only, with a couple of days' instruction, as the Ford core makers have nothing to do with core-sand mixing, and have wires, cut and bent to suit, supplied to them, and core-oven tenders to take the finished cores from the core-maker's benches as soon as made.

The chains are driven by electric motor with worm and sprocket gearing in reverse directions, so that the inner sides of both chain-circuits run from west to east through the oven and from east to west in the return outside. Baked cores are taken off the shelves at the east end and the shelves are loaded with unbaked cores before reaching the western entrance to the oven.

Core Driers

The core drier is one part of the metal core-box, often a costly piece of furniture, in which the core rests while baking. No matter what the length or form of a core may be it lies in true form in the drier while baking, and retains its over-all dimensions perfectly after baking. The Ford Model-T cylinders are difficult productions, very complicated in form and having water-jackets only j^-inch thickness of wall. Hence, it is imperative that the cores should be to dimensions exactly, and the use of the core driers ensures this correctness of core measurement.

The only objection is the very considerable cost of the driers, which fades to nothing in case of continuous repetitions of product.

The original installations of core ovens were the Rockwell revolving ovens, first installation in autumn of 1912, which yet remain in commission . See the upper picture on page 340.

Endless-Chain Core Ovens

The Ford engineers devised two endless chains of core-oven shelves, two circuits placed side by side and running in reverse directions, adjacent sides of the circuits running together through the oil-fired oven common to both, and returning through the open air. During this return trip the cores placed on the endless-chain-carried shelves are removed by the core takers-off. In this endless-chain core-shelf-circuit the overhead sprockets, endless chains, and overhead trolley tracks are precisely the correct thing, exactly suited to their work. Nothing could be better adapted to core-baking than this double-endless-chain arrangement, speed of chains 17 inches per minute on one side, and 12 inches per minute on the other side, so that heavier cores, placed on the outside, have the longer time in the oven. It is extremely economical of fuel, and gives a perfection of core-baking uniformity, entirely independent of the oven-tender's judgment, impossible to obtain by use of any other core oven ever seen by me.

Some Particulars of Endless-Chain Core-Oven Construction

The endless-chain core-oven sprockets are 80j/£ inches pitch circle diameter. The center-to-center distance of the sprockets is 38 feet and 6 inches. The cross-wise center-to-center distance of the sprockets for the two chain circuits of core-shelves-carrying down-hangers is 9 feet 3^ inches. All cores save the cylinder-barrel cores are baked in this oven.

The cylinder-barrel cores are very much larger than any other Model-T component cores and require much longer time in baking, and are baked exclusively in the Rockwell revolving core ovens.

The core-oven endless-chain-carried down-hangers (see page 341, lower right hand of the picture, and page 342) are of plate-steel, 72 inches long up and down by 24 inches wide and 3/i6 inch thickness.

The down-hangers are spaced 42 inches center-to-center, and are pierced to take 10 shelves, 16 inches wide, placed 6 inches apart up and down.

The picture on page 342 shows the eastern (exit) end of the core shelves. When this core oven was first used the eastern and western ends were alike; now, the western end has been surrounded by an outside wall extending about 10 feet eastward, thus increasing the virtual baking-oven length by that much. Taking the baked cores off the shelves is a very warm job.

This endless-chain core oven is extremely economical in points of floor space occupied and of fuel consumed in core-baking and core-handling labor, besides having the very great advantage of mechanicallydetermined core-baking time, nothing being left to the judgment of the core-oven tenders, thus ensuring a very close approximation to that absolute uniformity of core baking which is the first essential in the production of perfect cored castings. The cost of this oven was about $4,500.

Cranes

The Ford foundry is served by nine cranes and two elevators to the cupola-charging stage. Of the cranes, one is a Shaw gantry, 5-tons capacity , working on a track north of the foundry over sand bins and scrap bins, fitted with magnet and clam-shell; six cranes by the Northern Engineering Company, Detroit, each 3-tons capacity, covering the cylindermoulding and pouring floor, with tracks extending to the cylindercleaning and testing and monorail shipping floor at east end of the foundry ; one Browning flat-car jib-crane, 15-tons capacity, equipped with magnet and clam-shell, and one 40-ton crane mounted on a flat car, supplied by Browning, Cleveland.

The monorail track enters the foundry at the southeast corner and takes the foundry product to the factory.

The castings cleaning (save of cylinders) is along the south side of the foundry. The cylinders cleaning is at the eastern end of the foundry floor.

Brass Castings

The Ford Company began to make brass castings in the summer of 1914, is now pouring about 2 tons of brass per day, and will soon pour all its brass, about 11 tons per day, in a brass foundry on one of the floors in the old factory building . The present brass floor in the gray-iron foundry is a temporary affair only.

Aluminum Floor

This adjoins the gray-iron foundry west and south corner, with aluminum furnaces and cleaning floor adjoining the moulding floor.

Cylinders Cleaning

The tools employed are files, brushes, pneumatic chippers, and a hand-driven core-wire-puller, Ford construction. See illustration adjoining.

The hydraulic cylinder testing is by two Ford special machines, shown in the lower picture on this page.

Castings

The iron used in the cylinders analyzes: silicon 2.00, sulphur 0.06 to 0.08, phosphorus 0.20, manganese 0.65. Analysis is made daily. The cupola charge is pig, 50 per cent, scrap 35 per cent, steel scrap 15 per cent. About 135 pounds of iron in the ladle is required for each cylinder casting;

the weight of the cleaned cylinder casting is about 101 pounds each.

Thirteen hundred cylinder castings are poured each day; and about 1,200 cylinders are sent from the foundry to the machine shop.

Production Per Square Foot of Foundry Floor

The daily record for Nov. 2, 1914, is given as typical: Iron melted, 192 tons. Weight of sand handled, 1,906 tons.

Floor space used for iron moulding, 36,324 square feet Floor area per ton of iron poured, 186 square feet. Total number castings made, 40,450 pieces.

Average'weight of castings, 8.9 pounds. These total production and foundry area figures are given as likely to interest foundry managers and students of foundry economies.

Every square foot of factory floor carries the same overhead charges, and the less the floor space used for a given production, the lower the overhead charges against that production are.

The cylinder sand is worked in the usual manner, moistened and cut over by hand. The machine-made moulds are set on the floor, cores are set by core-setters, copes closed on by men who do nothing but close and bank the moulds, and all the hand work is divided and specialized as minutely as may be, to reduce the duties of each workman to the lowest profitable number. Undoubtedly the total number of workmen employed on the cylinder job could be very considerably reduced by the installation of the best possible mould-carriers, moved intermittingly, so as to stand still as much more than one-half of the time as the intermitting driving-mechanism can be conveniently arranged to give.

Perhaps 1,300 cylinders could be turned out with 250 men all told, in place of the 466 men now used, if everything was brought into the best possible form for working.

Fuel

Gray Iron Analysis for Model-T Components Other Than Cylinders

From test reports of November 23, an analysis of the gray iron is: combined carbon, 0.5; total carbon, 3.35; manganese, 0.65; phosphorus, 0.455; sulphur, 0.079; silicon, 2.54.

Tensile tests and transverse tests are made on the Oleson machines, and tests for hardness are made on twelve Shore "Sceleroscope" machines , located at various points in the Ford shops, and on one Brinell and one Derihon machine in the Ford laboratory.

Cupola Charging for Model-T Components Other Than Cylinders

Toledo pig, first charge, 300 pounds; Superior charcoal pig, 300 pounds; Toledo pig, second charge, 600 pounds; "return stock" scrap (largely defective cylinders), 1,400 pounds. The Ford Company buys all the defective cylinders which can be had in this section of the country, because of their high-grade metal.

Cost of Iron in Ladle

The Ford foundry average cost of iron in the ladle is about $0,008 per pound, flat, say, including overhead, $0,016.

Core-Sand Mixing Stage

The core-sand mixing stage is supplied with sand by the Shaw gantry crane, working on the tracks over the sand-bins on the north side of the foundry. (See the picture on page 344.) There are two machines on the core-sand mixing stage, one "apportioning" machine, sand and "compound" measurer and mixer, and one "batch" machine, both supplied by the Standard Sand and Machine Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Of course, the experienced core-maker will understand that a number of different core-sand mixtures are made, suitable for various descriptions of cores. The core-mixing stage has a working force of one foreman and five men, who mix the core-sand and deliver it to the proper core-bench chutes through traps in the gallery cast-iron floor-plates.

The "compound" or core-bond used is.supplied by the Henry E.

Mills Manufacturing Company, Syracuse, N. Y., for all save the cylinderbarrel cores, which are made with linseed-oil bond. Oil "matches" are not regularly used, but find occasional employment on the jobbing floor.

Ford Foundry Equipment, Excepting Cranes, Monorail and "Carrier Units"

The monorail carries 2 1/2-ton loads with a single car and 5-ton loads with two cars, one in front and one in rear of driver's cab. (See the illustration on page 353.) Two Rockwell revolving core ovens, four reels each, are used, principally for baking the 2,600 double cylinder-barrel cores required daily.

Eight "Pridmore" moulding machines are used in the aluminum foundry. The gray-iron foundry uses Pridmore, Osborne, and Berkshire moulding machines. Total number of moulding machines in the gray-iron foundry, 173.

Four cupolas are used, supplied by Northern Engineering Works, Detroit, Mich. A fifth cupola, supplied by the Whiting Foundry Equipment , Harvey, 111., is now being placed. All of these five cupolas are 10 feet higher than "regular" for their diameters.

Each cupola is supplied with air by a No. 10 Sturtevant forced-blast blower, 8- to 12-ounces blast pressure.

Three brass furnaces, supplied by the Monarch Company, Baltimore, are used in the brass foundry. The aluminum foundry has ten "Monarch " furnaces.

Three cylinder-barrel-cores black-washing machines, each having three revoluble core-stands, of Ford construction, are used, with blackwash atomizers. Ten core-wire cutting and forming machines are worked by ten men and one foreman.

Total number of tumbling barrels in Ford foundry, sixty-two; twenty -eight used exclusively for cylinder tumbling and thirty-four for general work.

Total number of grinding and facing wheels stands, thirty. The facing wheels are "Gardners," seven in number. Thirty-four snaggingwheel stands are used, supplied by Norton.

Cylinder Moulding

The cylinder moulding is done under three parallel craneways, running east and west, on which electric cranes for carrying the pouring ladles are operated. Each pouring ladle takes about 1,250 pounds of iron.

The cylinder moulders are worked in thirteen gangs, each gang including workmen as follows: One cope rammer; one cope rammer's helper; one drag rammer; one drag rammer's helper; one drag finisher, who inspects and finishes drag half of mould and sets three cylinder cores; one cope finisher, who inspects and finishes cope half of mould and sets water-jacket core; one barrel-core setter, who sets the barrel cores in mould, gives it final inspection, seals, and with aid of bankers, closes mould; two bankers, who help close mould, make runner basin and "bank up" mould.

No. 1 and No. 2 craneways, north, each serve four gangs of cylinder moulders. No. 3 craneway, north, serves five gangs. Each craneway is served by one pouring gang, including one pourer, who also operates crane, one pourer's helper, and one man who skims and assists otherwise as required. (See the cut on page 355.) The three craneways are served by one shaker-out gang consisting of one foreman and twenty-five men.

Standing, from left to right: Brass Melter; Head Cupola Man, "melter" in ordinary foundry talk; Stock Clerk—makes requisitions and keeps record of materials received and finished castings delivered; Pattern Foreman, in charge of patterns generally; Night Foreman; Foundry Foreman ; Foundry Head (young man with sweater); Second Foundry Foreman; Head Draftsman ; Draftsman; Draftsman. Office Clerk seated in center.

As an instance of the Ford policy of promoting employees it may be said that the Foundry Head, shown in the above group, was first a moulder, then a Ford wood-pattern maker, then a Ford metal-pattern maker, and after three years of Ford service as a mechanic was made head of the foundry.

The head of the department is standing at the extreme right. Seated, from left to right are: First Assistant; "Checker" for Heat Treating Department, who sees that the wearer of each badge number, recorded as passing the time-clock, is in the department and working; Heat-Treat "Checker," same duties as preceding. Standing, from left to right: Foundry "Checker," who is a time-taker in the foundry; Foundry "Checker," same as preceding; Messenger; Production Record Clerk; Heat-Treat "Checker"; Second Assistant; Production Clerk; Office Clerk, and, as previously noted, the Head of the Department.

Two "Night Checkers" are not shown. Time clocks are in an adjacent small building. Picture taken November 24, 1914.

Eighty tons of sand are used on the cylinder-moulding job, about two tons of new sand being supplied daily. This 80 tons of sand is cut-over by a gang of about fifteen men, working in the second shift, who make the sand ready for the cylinder moulders; the cylinder moulders begin at 6:30 a. m. and work in one shift only, to 3:00 p. m., one-half hour out for eating, own time.

The cupolas are attended by a gang which goes on at 6:00 and iron begins to come down at 6:30 a. m. The cupola bottoms are dropped at 3:15 p. m., sometimes as late as 3:30 p. m. for cylinder pouring.

Second-Shift Cupola Tenders

Begin 3:00 p. m., leave 11:30 p. m. Last thing, these men, who have other duties, clean up under the cupolas, making ready for five night cupola men who begin at 10:00 p. m. and leave at 6:00 a. m. These five men make the bed, charge the cupolas, light the bed, and make all ready for the day cupola men, who come on at 6:00 a. m. The wind is turned on about 6:10 a. m., and iron begins to come down at 6:30 a. m. The day cupola tenders leave at 2:00 p. m. and 3:00 p. m.

The cylinder pourers come on at 7:00 a. m., and leave at 3:00 p. in. The management avoids working men more than 8 hours in any one shift, save the top men who, from the foundry head down, come in early, and leave when everything belonging to the day's work is cleaned up.

Metal Pattern-Makers

Of course, all patterns in regular use are of metal. The regular force of metal-pattern makers, high pay rate 87j^ cents per hour, is about 63.

Until very recently all of these men worked in a second floor room, about 3 feet below the cupola-charging stage, and to the east thereof; now 33 of these metal-pattern makers have been transferred to the floor east of the wood-pattern shop, these men working on new patterns while 30 metal-pattern makers are retained on the old floor in the foundry, working on metal-pattern repairs.

Ford Foundry Regular Three Shifts

Shift No. 1. Come on at 6:30 a. m., leave at 2:30 p. m., gift of 13 minutes eating time, without leaving working stations.

Shift No. 2. Come on at 2:30 p. m., leave at 10:30 p. m., gift of 15 minutes eating time, without leaving working stations.

Shift No. 3. Come on at 10:30 p. m., leave at 6:30 a. m., gift of 15 minutes eating time, without leaving working stations.

These regular shift hours are somewhat modified in case of men who have to do with the cupolas, as before specified.

Summary

The mould carriers do for the foundry exactly what the moving assembly lines do for the machine-shop—clean up the floor, make production continuous, greatly reduce production costs and greatly increase the foundry-floor capacity..

The reader has only to compare two illustrations, that on page 336, pouring moulds on No. 4 unit, and that on page 355, pouring cylinders on the cylinder-floor, to understand fully the gains made by use of automatic mould-carriers. The former picture shows the floor clean, and everything proceeding in good "factory-form." The latter shows the usual foundry conditions, everybody working at disadvantage in an atmosphere of smoke and steam.